The Gospel According To John
I. About John; (the writer of this gospel).
a) Who he was:
1. The author never mentions his name in the book.
2. The author refers to himself as “the disciple whom Jesus loved”.
3. The author demonstrates an awareness of intimate details of Jesus ministry; John 2:6, 13:26, 21:8&11.
4. Through the process of elimination in regard to Jesus inner circle, we can narrow it down to John.
o James was martyred; Acts 12:1-5.
o Peter was a close associate of the disciple whom Jesus loved; John 13:23-24, 20:2-10.
5. “John’s authorship is established by conspicuous absence.” - John MacArthur
b) John’s authorship attested by others who knew John:
1. Polycarp, (A.D. 69-155) Bishop of Smyrna was a student of John’s and attributed the book to him.
2. Iranaeus, (A.D. 130-200) later Bishop of Lyons (in modern France) related several stories that he had heard from Polycarp in regard to the Apostle John.
c) Jesus relationship with John:
1. Brought John along into His most intimate circle.
o Mount of transfiguration Matthew 17:1-8.
o The arrest of Jesus Mark 14:32-33
o Witnessed Jesus’ first trial; John 18:12-23
o Last at the cross; John 19:25-27
o First disciple at the tomb; John 20:1-9
2. Along with his brother James, John was given the name “Boanerges”; “Sons of thunder” Mark 3:17.
o Calling fire down from heaven; Luke 9: 51-56.
o Stopping a man from speaking; Mark 9:38.
o Seat in the Kingdom; Matthew 20:20-23.
o In latter life no tolerance of error; three epistles.
II Purpose and circumstances for writing: John 20:30-31
a) A seeming desire to round out the message that was given by the three synoptic gospels.
1. Synoptic: “To see together”.
2. Approximately 90-93 percent of the material in the book of John is new and not in the other gospels.
o Contains no parables.
o Contains seven sign miracles before Christ’s death and one after His resurrection. Five of these miracles are not recorded elsewhere.
b) Responding to teaching that was heretical and inaccurate regarding his Lord Jesus Christ.
1. Gnosticism; the teaching that knowledge is the superior way, that scripture is not to be taken literally but figuratively so only those with a special “gnosis” or knowledge can interpret scripture accurately. Because there is evil there must be more than one God; how could a good God be responsible for allowing evil in the first place? Also there is no resurrection of the flesh.
2. Docetism; (to appear) the teaching that Jesus only appeared to be real. It denied the physical life, death and resurrection of Christ. It is not possible for God to be united to flesh since matter is evil.
3. Cerinthus; a prominent Gnostic of that day, taught that the Spirit of God came upon the man Jesus at His baptism but then left him just before the crucifixion.
The church father Eusebius (c. 260–340) quotes a story from Irenaeus (who lived in the late second century), who heard it from Polycarp (a disciple of the apostle John). The story says that John heard that Cerinthus had come into an Ephesian bathhouse where he (John) was. John immediately rushed out of the bathhouse shouting, “The building will collapse because the enemy of truth is inside!” Some scholars believe that certain passages in John’s writings may have been directed against Cerinthus (see John 1:1–3, 14; 1 John 4:1–3)
c) A desire that the truth about Jesus be known and believed.
1. John 20:30-31
2. The desire is evident from the very first verse until the last that John wants us to understand that Jesus is God, He came in the flesh, He died, He arose again, and ascended into heaven.
d) A dangerous and deadly political situation.
1. Rome was burned in A.D. 64.
2. Paul and Peter were probably killed around A.D 65-68
3. John wrote from Ephesus. After being a prominent leader in the Jerusalem church he went to Ephesus and served there for many years.
4. In A.D. 70 Jerusalem was destroyed. The mother church was no longer there and as the last of the Apostles who had actually spent time with Jesus, John wanted people to know the truth of who Jesus was.
III Contents and themes:
a) Almost half the words in John are the words of Jesus.
b) Seven miraculous signs that lead up to the Resurrection and one that follows it:
1. Turning water into wine (2:1–11)
2. Healing the royal official’s son (4:46–54)
3. Healing the lame man (5:1–18)
4. Feeding multitudes (6:1–15)
5. Walking on water (6:16–21)
6. Healing the blind man (9:1–41)
7. Raising Lazarus (11:1–57)
8. Catching fish miraculously (21:6–11)
Five of these signs appear only in John and not in the other Gospels: water into wine, healing of the royal official’s son, healing of the lame man, healing of the blind man, raising of Lazarus.
c) There are seven I am statements in John:
1. “I am the bread of life…” (6:35)
2. “I am the light of the world…” (8:12)
3. “I am the gate…” (10:7&9)
4. “I am the good shepherd…” (10:11&14)
5. “I am the resurrection and the life…” (11:25)
6. “I am the way, the truth and the life…” (14:6)
7. “I am the vine…” (15:1-5)
d) Key words and phrases:
1. Word “Logos” (1:1-14; I John 1:1, Rev. 19:13)
2. Born again (3:1-18)
3. Light (1:4-9; 3:19-21; 5:35; 8:12; 9:5; 11:9-10; 12:35-36,46)
4. Believe (1:7; 3:18; 6:29; 9:38; 11:17; 12:44)
- Used almost 100 times in this book.
5. I am
6. Witness or testimony:
o Of the Father (5:32,37; 8:18)
o Of the Son (8:14, 18)
o Of the Spirit (15:26)
o Of the works of Christ (5:36; 10:25)
o Of the scripture (5:39)
o Of the disciples (15:27)
o Disciple who Jesus loved (19:35;2031;21:24)
o John the Baptist (1:6-8; 19-36; 3:27-36; 5:33)
The Gospel According To John
The Incarnation of Christ: John 1:1-18
I. The foundational “story”.
a) The true starting point for all discussions of beginnings.
1. Romans 1:20-23 - “The truth we can’t not know”
2. “If a personal entity is at the foundation of reality, then we have a secure basis for discussing what the world is for rather than merely the material means by which it works…If only things existed, then scientific investigation might be the only road to knowledge, but if the foundation of reality is personal, then there are other ways of knowing. We can learn about things only by studying them but with persons we can also communicate.” The Wedge of Truth pg. 152 - Phillip E. Johnson
3. The foundational story of the materialist: “In the beginning were the particles and the impersonal laws of physics. And the particles somehow became complex living stuff. And the stuff imagined God; but then discovered evolution.” The Right Questions pg. 64 - Phillip E. Johnson
4. “The gospel story says that in the living Word ‘was life’ and the life was the light of all people…If you are lost in a dark cave and you see a light approaching, you know that a rescuer is approaching…If men ignore the reality of the Word and pursue instead a story based on the particles, this misguided course ought to lead them into error and confusion, back into the darkness of the cave instead of out into the light. People who start from the wrong foundation don’t make just one error; they create a tower of errors.” The Right Questions pg. 66 - Phillip E. Johnson
b) The “Word” is God; verse 1-2
1. “Logos” - “Word in action.” -F.F. Bruce pg.29
2. To the Greeks “Logos” or Word was in some sense a creative force and was an impersonal, abstract principle of reason and order in the universe.
3. To the Jew “Logos” was significant because the Word of the Lord was the expression of divine power and wisdom.
o Psalm 33:1-9 “…By the Word of the Lord the heavens were made…”
o Genesis chapter one, “And God said…” and whatever He commanded immediately happened.
o Genesis chapter 15, the covenant with Abraham was based solely on God’s word.
o When God had given the law through Moses in Exodus chapter 20-23, Moses then went to the people in Exodus 24 :3-4 “3 When Moses went and told the people all the Lord’s words and laws, they responded with one voice, “Everything the Lord has said we will do.” 4 Moses then wrote down everything the Lord had said…”
o “John presented Jesus to his Jewish readers as the incarnation of divine power and revelation.” - John MaArthur pg. 17.
4. “What God was, the Word was…John intends that the whole of his gospel shall be read in the light of this verse. The deeds and words of Jesus are the deeds and words of God…” F.F. Bruce pg. 31(v.1)
o Paul saw Jesus the same way, “…Christ Jesus who has become for us wisdom from God…” - I Corinthians 1:26-30
o “…in whom are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge…” Colossians 2:2-3
c) The Word is the creator, verse 3.
1. The Word is the “power and wisdom” by which God made the world. Jeremiah 10:12
2. Colossians 1:15-17 “For by him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things were created by him and for him. 17 He is before all things, and in him all things hold together.”
3. Hebrews 1:2-3 “…in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, and through whom he made the universe. 3 The Son is the radiance of God’s glory and the exact representation of his being, sustaining all things by his powerful word.”
d) The Word is life and knowledge, verse 4-5.
1. The truest essence of what God is is life. Life in the fullest sense. Life that is not only physical but also spiritual. It is in that sense that He is the light, for it is only by His light that we can truly find life.
o John uses the Greek word “Zoë” to designate this as spiritual life throughout his gospel.
o John 14:6 “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one come to the Father except through me.”
o In a very real sense life and light are almost synonymous. Just as the Word and God are synonymous in verse one.
o Genesis 1:2 “…darkness was over the surface of the deep…”
2. “Light is a synonym for goodness and truth as opposed to darkness which is evil and falsehood…it is not just mere knowledge as opposed to ignorance.” F.F. Bruce pg. 34
o Psalm 36:9 “For with You is the fountain of life; In Your light we see light.”
o II Corinthians 4:4-6 “For God, who said, ‘Let light shine out of darkness,’ made his light shine in our hearts to give us the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Christ.”
o The “darkness”, try as it may cannot extinguish the light. “…the darkness has not understood it.” NIV or “…the darkness did not comprehend it.” NASB In both translations the true meaning of the passage is not quite clear. It is not so much that the darkness could not figure out the light as that the darkness could not extinguish the light. Satan and his demonic hosts have known all along about the plan of God so in the Old Testament he tried vainly to destroy the nation of Israel through whom the Messiah would come. When Christ was born he moved Herod to try and kill the Christ child. When that didn’t work he tried vainly to tempt him to sin. When that didn’t work he tried to use his disciples to keep him from the cross.
II. The True Light Manifested.
a) John the Baptist introduced; verse 6-8.
1. Isaiah 40:3-5 "A voice of one calling: ‘In the desert prepare the way for the Lord make straight in the wilderness a highway for our God. Every valley shall be raised up, every mountain and hill made low; the rough ground shall become level, the rugged places a plain. And the glory of the Lord will be revealed, and all mankind together will see it. For the mouth of the Lord has spoken.’”
2. Malachi 3:1 “See, I will send my messenger, who will prepare the way before me…”
3. Malachi 4:5-6 “I am going to send you Elijah the prophet…”
4. John the Baptist is the first public witness to “...the life that was the light of men…”
o The truth of the book of John is anchored or rooted in history so it comes as no surprise that the author interjects this short introduction to us. Interestingly, John is never called “the Baptist” in this book.
b) True Light; verse 9.
1. Hebrews 1:3 “The Son is the radiance of God’s Glory and the exact representation of His being…”
2. I John 1:5-7 “…God is Light and in Him there is no darkness at all…”
3. II Corinthians 6:14-16a “…what fellowship can light have with darkness?”
4. II Corinthians 4:6 “…the Glory of God in the face of Christ…”
o Genesis 1:3 “And God said, ‘Let there be light,’ and there was light.”
c) Blindness of men; verse 10-11.
1. Colossians 1:16 “…by Him all things were created…”
2. “Like men with sore eyes they find light painful, while the darkness that permits them to see nothing, they find restful and agreeable.” Dio Chrysostom
3. “Cosmos” or World; can mean the physical world, humanity in general or it can mean the evil world system dominated by Satan. This last meaning is what John has in mind when he says “…the world did not recognize him…”
o Romans 1:18-21 “The wrath of God is being revealed…”
o Romans 2:14-15 “…when the Gentiles…do by nature…the law…they are a law for themselves…”
d) The mercy of God; verse 12-13.
1. I Corinthians 2:14 “The man without the Spirit does not accept the things of the Spirit…”
2. Ephesians 2:8-9 “By grace you have been saved…”
3. II Thessalonians 2:13 “…from the beginning God chose you to be saved…”
e) The Incarnate Word; verse 14-18.
1. God in the flesh.
o I Timothy 3:16 “Beyond all question the mystery of godliness is great…”
o Charles Wesley “Veiled in flesh the Godhead see, Hail th’ incarnate Deity! Pleased as man with man to dwell, Jesus our Emmanuel.”
o Exodus 33-34 Moses, “…show me your glory…”
o Exodus 40 “…Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting and the Glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle…”
o Philippians 2:5-11 “…at the name of Jesus every knee should bow…”
o Revelation 21:3-4 “…’ Now the dwelling of God is with men…’”
2. The testimony of John the Baptist verse 15
o John sites the testimony of the Baptist.
o There appears to have been a “John the Baptist cult” in existence at this time.
o John the Baptist died approximately AD 28-29.
3. God revealed to us. verse 16-18
o John sites the testimony of himself and all believers that they have “…all received one blessing after another.” or “grace upon grace”
o The giving of the law through Moses was an act of God’s grace as He chose a people to make them His own. The law was “…put in charge to lead us to Christ…” Galatians 3:24
o Romans 8 “Therefore, there is now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus…”
o What is God like? John 14:7-9 “If you really knew me, you would know the Father as well…”
o Matthew 11:27 “…no one knows the Father except the Son…” Jesus is the true “exegete” of the Father.
The Gospel According To John
The Public Ministry of Christ: John 1:19-4:54
I. Jesus’ public ministry begins.
a) Announced to the world by John the Baptist; verse 19-34
1. John the man.
o The birth of John Luke 1:5-25
o The ministry of John Luke 3:1-22
o Mark 1:1-11”…so John came baptizing in the desert region…”
o Mark 1:6 “John wore clothing made of camel’s hair…” Elijah - II Kings 1:8 “…a hairy man with a leather girdle…”
2. John’s Ministry John 1:19-34
o The song of Zachariah Luke 1: 67-80
o John called for repentance Matthew 3 “…produce fruit in keeping with repentance…”
o Elijah – I Kings 18:18; 21 “…how long will you waver between two opinions...”
3. Who John was.
o John was not literally Elijah “…Are you Elijah? He said, I am not…” verse 21
o Luke 1:17 “…he will go on before the Lord in the spirit and power of Elijah…”
o Matthew 17 10-13 “…Elijah already came…He had spoken of John…”
o John was not the “prophet” verse 21
o Deuteronomy 18-15-18 “The LORD your God will raise up for you a prophet like me…”
4. John in retrospect
o Matthew 11:2-6 John had doubts
o Matthew 11:7-15 “…what did you go out into the desert to see…”
o Mark 11:32 “…They feared the people because everyone held that John really was a prophet…”
o Matthew 14:1-12; the death of John the Baptist.
b) Announced to the Baptists’ disciples; John1: 35-51
1. Jesus the lamb
o John 1:35-36 Jesus called “The Lamb of God”
o Leviticus 4; 5; 16, sin offering, trespass offering, Day of Atonement. Exodus 12, Passover.
o Isaiah 53:7 “He was oppressed and He was afflicted, Yet He did not open His mouth; Like a lamb that is led to slaughter, And like a sheep that is silent before its shearers, So He did not open His mouth.” The suffering servant
o Genesis 22:8 “Abraham said, “God will provide for Himself the lamb for the burnt offering, my son.” So the two of them walked on together.”
2. Andrew and John
o John 1:37-38; the calling of two un-named disciples. Andrew, (verse 40) and another un-named disciple, probably John.
o “Followed, following”; the immediate act of following but also the act of giving Jesus their allegiance.
o “What do you want?” Jesus asks what seems obvious. He wants them to answer for themselves. He seems to be asking more than just the immediate what, he also seems to be asking about their hearts desire.
o “Rabbi, Teacher” “My great one”
o John 1:39-41; the two men spend the night with Jesus.
o Convinced they have found the Messiah, Andrew goes for Peter the very next day. We can never be sure the impact God may make through someone we bring to Jesus.
3. Peter, Philip and Nathaniel
o John 1:42 Simon bar Jonah; “Simon son of John”
o John 1:43-46 Philip called, Philip goes for Nathanael.
o John 1:47-51 Jesus demonstrates that he is indeed the Son of God.
c) Revealed at the wedding in Cana; John 2:1-11
1. Jesus spends time with people.
o Just like in his own case, John does not reveal the name of Jesus mother.
o It was about a two day walk from Bethany where John was baptizing to Cana.
o Mary did not necessarily expect a miracle. (v11)
o “Dear woman” a respectful address
o Mary learns a difficult lesson about the future priority for Jesus’ life.
o Luke 2:34-35“Behold, this Child is appointed for the fall and rise of many in Israel, and for a sign to be opposed— and a sword will pierce even your own soul—to the end that thoughts from many hearts may be revealed.”
o Mary trusts her son and submits to him. (v5)
2. Jesus glory revealed
o Jesus controls the very elements of nature as he changes the water into wine. “For by Him all things were created…” Colossians 1:16
o Think of the empty soul who when filled with the Word of God turns in faith to God. “Faith comes by hearing…” Romans 10:17
o What were the responses of the servants who did the drawing? The request must have seemed foolish. “For God has chosen the foolish things of the world…” I Corinthians1:27
o Jesus demonstrates symbolically that the Father has kept his best gift until last. Christianity is an advance over Judaism.
d) Revealed at the temple; John 2:12-25
1. Jesus family v.12
o Family relationship changed Matthew 12:46
o Jesus had at least 4 brothers; Matthew 13:54-58
o His brothers did not believe John 7:2-5
o Jesus appeared to James after His resurrection; I Corinthians 15:7
2. Cleansing the temple. (compare: Matthew 21:12-13)
3. Temple tax annually paid by males 20 years old and older for the upkeep of the temple. Exodus 30:13-14. Jesus himself paid the temple tax. Matthew 17:24-27
4. The tax had to be paid in Tyrian coinage. The purity of the silver was superior.
5. Jesus was zealous for the Glory of God and righteous worship. Psalm 69:9 “Zeal for your house has consumed me…”
6. Herod started the temple construction in 19 or 18 B.C. 46 years would make this A.D. 27 or 28. Construction went on until A.D. 63 and then the entire temple was destroyed in A.D.70.
7. Jesus did miracles as signs to the people of who he was. People believed he was a great healer and prophet but not necessarily the messiah. Compare John 6, eating His flesh and drinking His blood.
II Jesus public ministry expands
a) Nicodemus comes to Jesus; John 3:1-21
1. Nicodemus illustrates the point made in chapter 2 verse 23-25
2. He was a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin. Josephus said there were 71 members at this time from a total of 6000 Pharisees. Nicodemus was not average but was a cut above, he was articulate and known.
3. He came at night (v. 2) perhaps so as not to be seen or perhaps so as to be able to talk with Jesus at length which may not have been possible during the day. The fact that he came is significant.
4. He addressed Jesus with respect and a measure of belief. “Rabbi”; “we know…” (chapter 2:23-25)
5. Jesus was not interested in discussing the “signs” but instead went right to the heart of the issue.
b) Nicodemus is stopped cold by Jesus’ reply “…no one can see the kingdom of God unless he is born again.”
a) Nicodemus is stopped cold by the realization that his way of life is false in regard to leading him closer to God.
o He responds to Jesus parabolic comment about being “born again” by way of words that are themselves parabolic “How can a man be born when he is old?...Surely he cannot enter a second time into his mother’s womb to be born!”
o He was more astute than to think that Jesus was being literal so in keeping with the parable he responds in kind.
o Jesus is telling Nicodemus that his way of spiritual life is false and he needed to go back to the beginning and start completely over.
o Romans 10:1-3 “…their zeal is not based on knowledge…”
o Think of Paul in Philippians 3:8-9 “…I count all things to be loss…”
o “Jesus’ word regarding the new birth shatters once for all every supposed excellence of man’s attainment, all merit of human deeds, all prerogatives of natural birth or station. Spiritual birth is something one undergoes, not something he produces. As our efforts had nothing to do with our natural conception and birth, so in an analogous way but on a higher plane, regeneration is not a work of ours.” MacArthur; commentary on John page 103.
b) Jesus talks about how spiritual birth works. (v. 5-8)
o “…born of water and the Spirit…” v. 5 Jesus is reminding this Jewish intellectual that regeneration is a work of God and it starts with the cleansing work of the Spirit of God. It leads to renewal by the Spirit. Ezekiel 36:24-27 “…I will cleanse you…I will give you a new heart…I will put my Spirit in you…”
o Jesus emphasizes the fact that this spiritual cleansing is strictly a work of God. “…that which is born of the Spirit is Spirit…” v.6
o The children take on the nature of the parent. II Peter 1:4 “…so that through them you may participate in the divine nature…”
o The Spirit works where he will. His work cannot be seen but the effects can. “The wind blows where it pleases…” v.8
c) Nicodemus’s world has been totally rocked. “How can this be?...” v.9
o Galatians 3:10 “All who rely on observing the law are under a curse, for it is written: ’Cursed is everyone who does not continue to do everything written in the book of the law’.”
o This seeking intellectual would eventually come to Christ. John 7:50-52 Nicodemus defends Jesus before the Sanhedrin.
o John 19:38-42 Nicodemus accompanied Joseph of Arimathea when he took Jesus body and buried it.
c) Jesus defines the gospel and the lost condition of man. John 3:10-21 “…whoever believes in Him shall not perish but have eternal life…”
1. A powerful witness. v.10-15
o “We”- Jesus and his disciples. (compare v.2)
o I Corinthians 2:14 “The man without the Spirit does not accept the things that come from the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him, and he cannot understand them for they are spiritually discerned.”
o “No one has ever gone into heaven…” John 8:42; 17:5 John 17:1-5 “…glorify me…with the glory I had with you before the world began.”
o The lifting up of the cure for man’s sickness: Numbers 21: 5-9 “…anyone…looked at the bronze snake, he lived.” II Kings 18:4 “He (Hezekiah) removed the high places, smashed the sacred stones and cut down the Asherah poles. He broke into pieces the bronze snake Moses had made, for up to that time the Israelites had been burning incense to it. (It was called Nehushtan.)”A mere piece of bronze”
o Salvation found by looking to Christ’s sacrifice on our behalf.
o “eternal life” the first of 15 references in this book to this all important term.
2. A powerful message. v. 16-21
o “For God so loved the world…” God’s love for humanity. Romans 5:8 “But God demonstrates His own love for us in this: While we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.”
o “…that He gave His only son…” unique; one of a kind. (compare John 1:14) John 17:22-26 Philippians 2:5-11 - Kenosis
o “…not…to condemn the world but to save the world through him.” John 5:24, 40; John 12:47-50 “…I did not come to judge the world…”
o “…will not come into the light…”Hebrews2:2-3 “…how shall we escape if we ignore such a great salvation…”
d) Jesus and the Samaritans John 4:1-42
1. Historic animosity. v. 1-9
o II Kings 17:1-23 Israel deported from the land for continuous idolatry.
o 17:24-26 The king of Assyria resettles other races in the land.
o 17:27-41 The people begin to worship Yahweh but combine it with idolatry. (syncretism)
o Ezra 4 – The Samaritans want to help with the building of the temple.
o Nehemiah 4- The Samaritans oppose Nehemiah in the rebuilding of the walls.
o Samaritans are a hated people by the Jews. In John 8:48 in the midst of a debate with the Pharisees Jesus is called a “Samaritan” as a slur. The writer of the apocryphal book of Ecclesiasticus referred to the Samaritans as “the stupid people living at Shechem”
2. Jesus speaks to a Samaritan woman. v. 10-15
o “…living water…” v.10 Jeremiah 2:13 “My people have committed two sins: they have forsaken me the spring of living water, and have dug their own cisterns, broken cisterns that cannot hold water”
o Psalm 36:9 “For with you is the fountain of life; in you light we see light.”
o Ezekiel 36:24-27 “…I will sprinkle clean water on you and you will be clean; I will cleanse you…I will give you a new heart…I will put my Spirit in you…”
o “…a spring of water welling up to eternal life.” Revelation 21:6-7” He said to me: “It is done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. To him who is thirsty I will give to drink without cost from the spring of the water of life. He who overcomes will inherit all this, and I will be his God and he will be my son.”
3. Jesus confronts the Samaritan woman’s sin v. 16-26
o Jesus demonstrates his omniscience v. 16-18
o The light starts to shine on this woman. v.19-26
o “…we worship what we do know…” v.22 Jesus reaches back to Genesis 12:3 “…all peoples on earth will be blessed through you…” and also reaches forward to Paul in Galatians 3:7-9 “Understand, then, that those who believe are children of Abraham…So those who have faith are blessed along with Abraham the man of faith.”
o “…salvation is from the Jews…” Romans 9:3-5 “from them is traced the human ancestry of Christ…”
The Gospel According To John
Jesus confronts the Jews: John 5:1-12:50
I. Miraculous Signs; Rampant Unbelief
a) Jesus in Jerusalem John 5:1-5:47
1. The healing of the lame man. (v. 1-9)
o Verse 3b and all of verse 4 are omitted by NIV. Most commentators agree that it is very likely that these verses were not a part of John’s actual gospel. Additionally see: (John 7:53-8:11)
o Verse 2 says “…there is in Jerusalem…” John was writing about the past using a present tense. Since the book was written perhaps A.D. 90-95 and Jerusalem was destroyed in A.D. 70 it cannot be speaking about the then present conditions. The pools themselves are reported to have been seen as late as the fourth century.
o Verse 6-7; the man did not know who Jesus was. Here standing in front of him was his cure but he only saw his weakness and it never occurred to him that Jesus was the answer for his problem.
Question: How often have we had the answer to our dilemma right in front of us in the person of Jesus Christ but instead spent our time looking elsewhere?
o Verse 8; Jesus heals him instantly.
2. Persecuted for healing on the Sabbath (v.10-18)
o Verse 14; Jesus did not say the man’s ailment had been caused by sin but warned him of that potential in the future. Ultimately his sin would result in hell itself a fate far worse than any ailment the man may have had.
o Verse 15; it appears the man had less gratitude for Jesus than he had fear of the Jews. “…It is the Sabbath; the law forbids you to carry your mat.” (v.10)
o Verse 16; the Jews persecuted Jesus because they felt he was causing others to desecrate the Sabbath.
o Mark 2:23-28 “…The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath…”
o Exodus 20:8-11 Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy…”
o Exodus 31:12-17 “…Observe the Sabbath because it is holy to you…”
o Matthew 12:1-13 “…it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath…”
o Micah 6:6-8 “…act justly…love mercy and…walk humbly with your God.”
o Verse 17; Jesus claims God as his father as He makes the point that God is always at work. Without the moment by moment activity of the Almighty God we would cease to exist.
o Verse 18; that the Jews understood Jesus to be claiming equality with God, can be seen by their reaction to his last statement.
Other examples of Jesus persecuted:
o John 7:20 “…you are demon – possessed…”
o John 8:48 “…you are a Samaritan and demon – possessed…”
o John 10:20 “…demon – possessed and raving mad…”
o Matthew 12:24 “…It is only by Beelzebub the prince of demons that this fellow drives out demons…”
3. Jesus’ is equal to God (The Father) (v. 19-24)
o Verse 19-20; Jesus and the Father are one in essence.
o John 17:21 “…just as you are in me and I am in you…” To see Christ act is to see God act.
o John 12:45; 14:9-10 “…anyone who has seen me has seen the Father…”
o V. 20 “…the Father loves the Son…” This is a love that is rooted in relationship. (Phileo)
o Verse 21-22; Jesus and the Father are one in action.
o John 11:1-44 the raising of Lazarus, the power over physical death.
o John 4:14 “…the water I give him will become in him a spring of water welling up to eternal life…” the power over spiritual death.
o Elijah (I Kings 17:22) and Elisha (II Kings 4:34-35) acted as God’s representative when they raised the dead, Jesus acts of his own accord as God though always in keeping with the Father.
o II Thessalonians 1:5-10 Jesus will return in judgment.
o Verse 23-24; Jesus and the Father are one in honor.
o John 6:28-29 “…The work of God is to believe in the one He has sent.”
o “In religious circles it is too easy for unbelief to contemplate God but not the Son. Knowledge of one implies knowledge of the other, hatred of one implies hatred of the other, and denial of one implies denial of the other.” MacArthur pg. 190
4. Jesus gives life (v. 25-29)
o Verse 25; already but not yet, spiritual resurrection.
o Ephesians 2:1-2 “But as for you, you were dead in your trespasses and sins, in which you used to live…”
o Romans 6:13 “…offer yourselves to God, as those who have been brought from death to life…”
o Colossians 2:13 “When you were dead in your sins and the uncircumcision of your sinful nature, God made you alive…”
o “To be spiritually dead is to be insensible to the things of God and unable to respond to Him.” - John MacArthur –
o “Death… implies inability. The corpse cannot raise itself from the tomb and come back to the scenes and society of the living world…inability characterizes fallen man.” MacArthur pg. 197
o Verse 26; “…Father...has granted the Son...”
o Even in the self limiting act of becoming a man, the Son retained certain prerogatives of deity in keeping with the will of the Father.
o Philippians 2:6-8; John 5:19, 30; 8:28.
o Verse 27; “…because he is the Son of Man…”
o Daniel 7:13-14 “…His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away…”
o Hebrews 2:14-18 “…he had to be made like his brothers in every way…”
o Hebrews 4:14-16 “…tempted in every way, just as we are yet was without sin…”
o Three great keys: (openings)
- Deuteronomy 28:12 open heaven and give rain
- Genesis 30:22 open the womb and give conception
- Ezekiel 37:13 open the grave and raise the dead!
o Verse 28; all of the dead will hear His voice.
o Verse 29;Judgement based on works
o There is an order to resurrection, Revelation 20.
o Romans 2:6-10 Actions reflect inner nature.
o Romans 6:3-5: We are united with Christ in His resurrection.
o Good deeds are an effect of salvation, not its cause. (Ephesians 3:10)
5. Jesus is God (v.30-47); four witnesses
o Verse 33-35 the witness of John
o John 1:19-34 John testifies that Jesus is the Son of God and the promised Messiah.
o Verse 36 the witness of Jesus’ works.
o Isaiah 35:5-6 “Then will the eyes of the blind be opened…”
o John 3:2 “…we know you are a teacher who has come from God...”
o John 7:31 “…will he do more miraculous signs than this man?”
o John 11:45-48 “…here is this man performing many miraculous signs…”
o John 2:23; 10:25, 38; 14:11; 15:24 examples of the works and rejection by the Jews.
o Verse 37-38 the witness of the Father
o Matthew 3:17 baptism, 17:5 transfiguration
o Verse 39-47 the witness of the scriptures
o Luke 10:25 “…what must I do to inherit eternal life?” (compare Matthew 19:16)
o To understand the bible, an individual requires the Holy Spirit’s illumination of the scripture. The person who is spiritually dead cannot “see” what the text is saying. Ephesians 2:1-2; I Corinthians 2:12-14
o V. 41-43; II Corinthians 4:4-6 “…the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Christ.”
o V.44-47; “…they misunderstood the purpose of the Mosaic law…The law was given to reveal man’s sinfulness and utter inability to save himself…If they rejected the truths taught by Moses whom they revered, they could hardly be expected to accept the teaching of Jesus.” John MacArthur pg.215
o Those who reject the teaching of scripture will find themselves in the place of the rich man in Jesus’ parable about the rich man and Lazarus who were separated by a great gulf in the afterlife. Luke:16:17-31
b) Jesus near the Sea of Galilee John 6:1-29
1. Jesus and His disciples go for rest. (v.1-4)
o “Some time after this…” v1. Perhaps 6 months or even up to a full year pass between the events of chapter 5 and chapter 6.
o In chapter 5:1 it is a “feast of the Jews”’ here in verse 4 it is “The Jewish Passover Feast”.
o Much has happened in the life and ministry of Jesus since we last saw Him there in Jerusalem. The following is some of what Matthew Mark and Luke record during the interlude:
- Teaches in public in Capernaum. Matthew 4:13-17
- The miraculous catch of fishes. Luke 5:1-11
- Demons cast out. Mark 1: 23-28
- Simon’s mother in-law healed. Mark 1:29-34
- Healing of the paralytic let down through the roof. Mark 2:1-12
- Healing of the man with the shriveled hand ... on the Sabbath. Matthew 12:9-14
- Sermon on the Mount. Matthew 5:1-8:1
- Healing of the centurion’s servant. Luke 7:1-10
- Raising of the widows son at Nain. Luke 7:11-17
- Anointing of His feet. Luke 7-36-50
- Heals a blind, mute demoniac. Matthew 12:22-37
- His family thinks he has gone mad. Mark 3:20-12
- Calms the storm on the lake. Matthew 8:23-27
- Raises Jairus’s daughter. Mark 5:21-43
- Herod fears that John the Baptist is raised from the dead. Luke 9:6-9
o Sea of Galilee; Sea of Chinereth; Lake of Gennesaret; Sea of Tiberius. Sea of Galilee would have been common in Jesus’ day. By the time John wrote it would have been known as the Sea of Tiberius.
o “…went up on a mountainside…” (v.3) This may be the area we know as the Golan Heights today. Israel and Syria fought an intense battle there in 1967.
2. Jesus feeds 5,000 men plus women and children (v.5-13)
o When Jesus heard that Herod had put John the Baptist to death, “…He withdrew by boat privately to a solitary place…” Matthew 14:13-20
o On hitting shore Jesus had compassion on the crowd and healed their sick. Matthew 14:14
o Jesus disciples had just returned from their preaching mission and were tired so Jesus took them with him. Mark 6:7-13; they wanted to report all that had happened to them. (6:30)
o Herod heard about Jesus and thought it was John the Baptist returned from the dead.
o It was the disciples who asked Jesus to send the crowds away to find food. Luke 9:10-17 Jesus told his disciples to have the people sit in groups of approximately 50 people.
3. The people want to make Jesus King (v. 14-15)
o The people rightly recognized Jesus as the “prophet that is to come” Deuteronomy 18:15-19
o The leaders as we will see saw it but rejected it.
o Luke 7:20-22 John the Baptist reassured.
4. Jesus walks on water (v. 16-21)
o Matthew 14:22-23 and Mark 6:45-52 both records that Jesus “made” his disciples get into the boat.
o There are at least 4 individual miracles that occur here:
- Jesus walking on the water John 6:19
- Jesus was walking so freely that they thought he may walk right on by the boat Mark 6:48
- Peter walking on the water Matthew 14:28 “…’Lord, if it’s you,’ Peter replied, ‘tell me to come to you on the water’”.
- The wind died down Matthew 14:32“And when they climbed into the boat, the wind died down.”
- Once Jesus was in the boat they immediately reached their destination. John 6:21 “…immediately the boat reached the shore where they were heading.”
o After the disciples missed the point of the loaves and fishes, Jesus gives them a dramatic demonstration that he is indeed God in the flesh. Mark 5:51b-52 “…They were completely amazed, for they had not understood about the loaves, their hearts were hardened.” Matthew 14:33 “Then those who were in the boat worshiped him saying, ‘Truly you are the Son of God.”
5. The response of the people to Jesus miracle of the loaves and fishes. (v. 22-29)
o The crowd goes in search of breakfast. V.22-24
o The people are baffled at how Jesus could have made his way across the lake since they knew he had not gone with the disciples in the one available boat.
o Jesus confronts their crass materialism and utilitarian self centeredness. V. 26-27
o When the people ask what work can they possibly do that would please God Jesus gives them the one and only answer. V. 28-29
c) Jesus is the Bread of Life John 6:30-71
“This sermon on “the bread of life” is actually a dialogue between Christ and the people, especially the religious leaders (“the Jews”). We see four responses of the crowd to the Lord Jesus in John 6: seeking (vv. 22–40), murmuring (vv. 41–51), striving (vv. 52–59), and departing (vv. 60–71).” – Wiersbe –
“It is almost as if the apostle hurries through the accounts of Christ’s miracles to get to His words…signs and wonders alone are not enough for salvation…because ‘…faith comes from hearing and hearing by the word of Christ.’ Romans 10:17” MacArthur pg. 242
1. The people don’t get it. (v.30-35)
o Prove that Jesus is from God. V. 30-31“…What miraculous sign then will you give…?”
o Jesus reminds them of where the manna and other benefits truly come from. V. 32-33
o They still are thinking in terms of their stomach and felt needs. V. 34
o Jesus makes a bold “I Am” statement V. 35
|The “I AM” Statements|
|Twenty-three times in all we find our Lord’s meaningful “I AM” (ego eimi, Gr.) in the Greek text of this gospel (4:26; 6:20,35,41,48,51; 8:12,18,24,28,58; 10:7,9,11,14; 11:25; 13:19; 14:6; 15:1,5; 18:5,6,8). In several of these, He joins His “I AM” with seven tremendous metaphors which are expressive of His saving relationship toward the world.|
|“I AM the Bread of life” (6:35,41,48,51).|
|“I AM the Light of the world” (8:12).|
|“I AM the Door of the sheep” (10:7,9).|
|“I AM the Good Shepherd” (10:11,14).|
|“I AM the Resurrection and the Life” (11:25).|
|“I AM the Way, the Truth, and the Life” (14:6).|
|“I AM the true Vine” (15:1,5).|
2. The will of the Father (v. 35-40)
o The bread Jesus offers is eternal in its effects. V35
o The people don’t see it. V36
o The Father is the giver of eternal salvation.V37-40.
- All the Father gives will come. V37a.
- None will be cast out V37b.
- Jesus came to do the Fathers will V38.
- The Father wills that Jesus would lose none of those He gave Him. V39a.
- Jesus will raise them up at the last day V39b
- The Father wills that those who seek salvation through the Son will find it. V40a.
- Jesus will raise them up at the last day V40b
o The Father is sovereign in the matter of eternal salvation. Romans 8:28-30
- “…He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world…” Ephesians 1:4
- “So as those who have been chosen by God…” Colossians 3:12
- “…not according to our works, but according to His own purpose…” 2Tim. 1:9
- “But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood…” I Peter 2:9
3. The Jews grumble (v.41-50) Exodus 16:2-3;8-9
o They struggled with Jesus being the bread of life come down from heaven. V41
o They thought they knew his linage. V42
o No one comes to Jesus without the activity of the Father in their life first. V44a
o Jesus will raise them up at the last day V44b
o Those who listen and learn, come. V45
o Jesus has seen the Father. V46
o Manna in Moses day was temporary in its effects, Jesus offers permanent manna. V47-50;58
4. Jesus makes a shocking assertion (v.51-58)
o Jesus is the living bread. V51a
o Jesus flesh is the living bread. V51b
o “Eating” His flesh and “drinking” His blood is the source of eternal life. V53-56
o The Father lives so Jesus lives, in like manner those who ‘eat” may live. V57
5. True followers’ show themselves. (v. 59-71)
o His disciples struggled with accepting His teaching. V.60
o Jesus clarifies His metaphor V61-63
o Jesus knows who are His V64-65
o Many stop following V66
o Jesus true disciples stay with Him. V67-68
o Jesus knows who will betray Him V70-71
d) The feast of Tabernacles in Jerusalem John 7:1-52
1. Jesus waits for the Father’s time (v. 1-10)
o Verse one begins with Jesus going “around in Galilee…” It has been 6-7 months since the discourse about the “Bread of Life”. The Passover occurs around April and Tabernacles is not until October. Jesus had a few short hours with those false disciples who “…turned back and no longer followed Him.” (6:66), He has had 6-7 months to pour into the lives of
his disciples who would soon become the Apostles.
o “Feast of Tabernacles”V.2 John repeatedly tied his narrative to various Jewish feasts, (2:13-Passover; 6:4-Passover; 7:2-Tabernacles; 10:22-Hanukkah or Feast of Dedication; and 11:55-Passover), but the 5:1 reference is the only instance when he did not identify the particular feast occurring at the time.
o “Jesus brothers said to him…” V3. Jesus had 4 brothers and an unlisted number of sisters.“Is not this the carpenter’s son? Is not His mother called Mary, and His brothers, James and Joseph and Simon and Judas? “And His sisters are they not all with us?” Matthew 13:55
o Verse 4-5 (compare 12:37). Proximity to Jesus, either in a family or as a disciple, does not guarantee faith. Thankfully at least 2 of Jesus brothers came to faith in Him. (I Corinthians 15:2-8 “…then He appeared to James…”)
o Verse 6-7 Jesus fully submitted to the time table of the Father. It would not be time for His death until the Father said it was time. “Father, the time has come…” (17:1) (compare 12:23, 27; 13:1)
o Verse 8-10 Jesus sends his brothers off since they have nothing to lose. At this time they are part of the world and not of faith. Jesus tells them “…I am not yet going up to this feast…”. He then goes up secretly.
2. The Jews can’t figure Jesus out (v.11-18)
o Verse 11-13 There is wide spread disagreement regarding Jesus, his teaching, and his miracles.
o Verse 14 Jesus waited until the middle of the feast to go up to the temple. Perhaps to avoid a premature “triumphal entry” Remember the people expected a political deliverer.
o Verse 15 Jesus demonstrated supernatural knowledge and exuded a presence and forthrightness that amazed the people.
o Verse 17 Jesus gives testimony of where his teaching and authority came from.
o Verse 18 Those who are truly in tune with God the Father will recognize the origin of what Jesus said. The word of God through the power of the Holy Spirit is self authenticating. It depends on no one to be legitimate but stands on its own.
3. Jesus confronts their obstinate unbelief. (v.19-24)
o Verse 19-20 Jesus goes to the root of the matter.
- “Instead of repenting because His light had rebuked their darkness (3:19-20), they insulted Him, saying He was demon-possessed. People had said the same of John the Baptist (Matt. 11:18). Jesus had told His half-brothers the world hated Him (John 7:7), because “everyone who does evil hates the light” (3:20). To call Jesus, who is sent from God, demon-possessed is to call light darkness (cf. 8:48, 52; 10:20). They denied His accusation that they were trying to kill Him. But earlier they were in fact trying to do that very thing (5:18). Walvoord, J. F., Zuck, R. B., & Dallas Theological Seminary. (1983-c1985). The Bible knowledge commentary : An exposition of the scriptures (2:300). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books. “Woe to those who call evil good and good evil, who put darkness for light and light for darkness, who put bitter for sweet and sweet for bitter.” Isaiah 5:20
o Verse 21-24 Once again Jesus tells the people that the Moses they took so much pride in was someone they did not know.
- Jesus goes back to the topic of discussion from the last time he was in Jerusalem some 6-7 months earlier. The time that he healed the lame man at the pool of Bethesda. John 5:16-18; 45-47
4. Really the Messiah? (v. 25-29)
o The people affirm that there was a plot to have Jesus killed. Verse 25
o The boldness of Jesus baffled not only the people but the Jewish officials as well. Verse 26
o Where the Spirit of God is very often His people become very bold.
- Acts 4:31”…filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak the word of God with boldness.”
- Acts 4:13 the Sanhedrin is amazed at the boldness of Peter and John.
- Acts 9:27-28 Paul speaks boldly.
- Acts 13:46 Paul and Barnabas speak boldly
- Acts 14:3 Paul and Barnabas at Iconium.
o On one level the people did indeed know Jesus, but not at the level of acknowledging him as Lord. Verse 27-29
5. “Seize Him!” (v. 30-36)
o Not yet; verse 30.
o Many believed verse31.
o The Pharisees move to protect their position. Verse 32.
o Where Jesus was going the Jews could not come. Verse 33-36.
- John 8:21 “…I am going away and you will look for me and you will die in your sin. Where I go you cannot come.”
- The Jews mockingly question one another and quote the statement of Jesus “...Where I am going you cannot come.” Verse 36
6. The Ultimate question – “What will you do with Jesus?”
o Verse 37-38 Jesus mentions water in the midst of a festival where water was daily drawn from the pool of Siloam and ritually poured out at the altar as an offering to God.
o Jesus the Rabi, who would normally sit when he taught, stood to address the people.
- He offers a life giving drink.
- Three times he harkens back to the wanderings in the desert and offers the same kind of sustenance. I.E. The bread of life 6:35, Exodus 16; living water 7:37-38, Exodus 17:5-7; light of the world 8:12, Exodus 13:21-22.
- He perhaps even alludes to Isaiah 12:3 “With joy you will draw water from the wells of salvation.” Of Isaiah 55:1 “Come, all you who are thirsty, come to the waters…”
- “Thirsty” – recognize spiritual thirst.
- “Come” – only Jesus has the life giving drink.
- “Drink” Think of the rich young ruler (Mark 10), he came but he didn’t drink.
o Verse 39 The Spirit would be given in a unique way that had not been seen up to that time. (Acts 4:31) The Spirit had always been active: Psalm 51:11 “…do not take your Holy Spirit away from me.” Psalm 139:7-12 “Where can I go from your Spirit…” etc.
o Four responses: Verse 40-52
- Persuaded v.40-41a.
- Argumentative v.41b.-44
- Infuriated v.45-49;52
- Reflective v.50 (Nicodemus John 19:38-42)
e) An interlude with hypocrisy John 7:53-8:11
1. Misplaced text? (c.f. Mark 16:9-20)
o The earliest and best manuscripts do not contain this account.
o The account breaks the flow of thought that is moving through the end of chapter 7 and is picked up in chapter 8 verse 12.
o The word for “scribes” (NKJ; NASB) is found only here in the book of John.
o Of those that do contain it, most place it here, after 7:52 (F.F. Bruce pg. 413)
- Some place it after 7:36 or 7:44 or even at the end of the book after 21:25.
- One group of manuscripts has it after Luke 21:38.
o Though doubtful that it belongs here yet it is almost certainly the words and actions of Jesus.
2. It’s all about Jesus
o Humble simplicity v.8:1-2
- Jesus makes himself available to the people.
o God’s wisdom v. 3-8
- Jesus was not intimidated by the supposed dilemma.
o Convicting presence v.9
- Instead of verbally confronting their hypocrisy, Jesus uses silence to convict them.
o Extended grace and forgiveness v. 9b-11
- Jesus commands a new way of life.
f) Jesus’ witness is authoritative John 8:12-20
1. The Light Of The World v.12
o The second of Jesus’ 7 “I Am” statements.
- John 6:35 “I Am the bread of Life…”
- They reveal “different facets of Christ’s nature as God and His work as savior.” MacArthur pg. 234
o John 1:4-9 “…The true light that gives light to every man was coming into the world.”
- Page 5 of these notes.
- Psalm 36:9 “For with You is the fountain of life; In Your light we see light.”
- “Like men with sore eyes they find light painful, while the darkness that permits them to see nothing, they find restful and agreeable.” Dio Chrysostom
2. Jesus testimony about himself is valid v.13-20
o Unlike in John 5:31 Jesus claims His testimony is valid on the basis of who He is. v.14.
o The reason they don’t know where he is from or where he is going is because of their unbelief.
o Forgetting His admonition to “…make a right judgment.” (7:24), The Pharisees judge his testimony as invalid.
o Jesus, being God, claims the testimony of the Father as support for his claim to be God. v. 16-18
g) Jesus predicts His departure v. 21-31
1. “…where I go, you cannot come.” v.21 Why?
o The Jews are still baffled. v.22
- Remember John 7:33-36; it is hard to tell but it seems like a mixture of sarcasm and bewilderment.
- Suicide was especially heinous to the Jews. Even Josephus stated that “The souls of those who have acted madly against themselves are received by the darkest place in Hades.” (Wars of the Jews; iii, viii.5)
- This was nothing less than self righteous unbelief. (Luke 18:9-14 The Pharisee and tax collector)
2. Jesus claims to be the “I Am” v. 23-24
o Exodus 3:14
- The Septuagint (Greek translation of the Old Testament) uses the same word in Isaiah 41:4; 43:10,25; 45:18; 46:4
o The Jews totally miss the Father v. 25-27
3. Jesus predicts His Death v. 28-29
o The death, burial and resurrection would vindicate all of Jesus’ claims.
- Matthew 27:50-54 “…surely he was the son of God!”
- Acts 2:14-41 – Peters sermon at Pentecost
- Revelation 1:7 “…everyone will see Him, even those who pierced Him.”
4. Some put their faith in Him v.30-32
o Notice the condition “...If you hold to my teaching…”
- John 6:60-66 “…no one can come to me unless the Father has enabled him…”
o John 1:17 “For the law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ.”
o John 11:25-26 “I am the resurrection and the life…”
o John 14:6 “I am the way the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.”
o Four main thrusts:
- Believe v.31
- Hold v.31
- Know v.32
- Freedom v.32
5. Arrogant descent v. 33-40
o Israel had been enslaved to Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, Syria, and at the time of Jesus, Rome.
o It was an arrogant misguided belief that they had spiritual freedom simply because they were descended from Abraham.
- Romans 2:28-29 “A man is not a Jew if he is only one outwardly…”
- Romans 3:9 “…We have already made the charge that Jews and Gentiles alike are all under sin.”
- Romans 3:28 “For we maintain that a man is justified by faith apart from observing the law”
- Romans 4:3 “…Abraham believed God and it was credited to him as righteousness.”
6. Whose children were they? v. 41-47
o Matthew 11:27 “…no one knows the Father except the Son and those to whom the Son chooses to reveal Him.”
o Love for the Father requires love for the Son.
- John 5:23 “…He who does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent Him.”
- John 15:23 “He who hates me, hates my Father as well.”
7. Jesus blows away all the props v.48-58
o Dishonoring Jesus v.48-51
- Jesus teaching is attributed to the demonic.
- Verse 50, powerful condemnation.
o The realization that Jesus is claiming to be greater than their “father” Abraham v.52-53.
o Jesus claims the title “I am” effectively claiming to be the God who is. The same God who revealed himself to Moses at the burning bush in Exodus 3.
h) The perfect “picture” of blindness John 9:1-41
1. Why is there disease? v.1-5
o Disease or other hardships are not always because of sin or unbelief. v.3
o Jesus had a special work He wanted to do in this man’s life. v.3
o Jesus, who is the light (v.5;8:12 “…I am the light of the world…”) would only be here for a short time and needed to make himself known in specific ways to specific people. v.4
2. The Great Physician heals. v.6-7
o Jesus uses mud to heal. Why?
o The blind man went, washed, and came home seeing.
3. The blind man’s stunned neighbors v. 8-12
o There is disagreement about who he is v.8-9
o They try to figure it out v.10
o The man gives Jesus the credit. v.11-12
o “Blinded by sin, lost sinners have no capacity to recognize the savior or find Him on their own. The blind man would not have been healed had Jesus not sought him and revealed himself to him. So it is in salvation; if God did not reach out to spiritually blind sinners, no one would be saved.” John MacArthur pg. 396
4. Obstinate unbelief. v.13-17
o They bring the man to the Pharisees and he tells the story again. v.13-15
o The healing occurred on the Sabbath v.14
o Jesus regularly “violated” the Sabbath. Why?
- John 5:9-18 “…So because Jesus was doing these things on the Sabbath, the Jews persecuted him…”
- Matthew 12:1-8 “…the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath…”
- Matthew 12:9-13 “…Therefore it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath.”
- It showed His authority as Lord of the Sabbath. Luke 6:5
- It showed that extra-biblical standards were unnecessary and oppressive. Mark 2:27 “The Sabbath was made for man and not man for the Sabbath.”
- Rule keeping became a way of glorifying man instead of glorifying God.
o They are divided about who Jesus is. v.15-17
5. The parents summoned to testify. v.18-23
o Jews refused to believe that Jesus did this very public, very undeniable miracle.
o They verify that he indeed was born blind. v.19
o The parents claim him as their son and the he had in fact been born blind. v.20
o They claim no knowledge about how he received his sight. v.21
o The parents were afraid. v.22-23
6. The second interrogation v.24-34
o They want the focus moved off of Jesus. v.24
- “Stop lying and tell us who healed you”
- “Give God the glory and not this Jesus”
- Joshua 7:19 “…My Son, give glory to the LORD, the God of Israel, and give him the praise. Tell me what you have done…”
- They refer to Jesus as a sinner. v. 24
o The man instructs the Pharisees v.25-34
- He steadfastly gives Jesus the credit.
- He refuses to be bullied.
- He talks about how a true messenger of God may be recognized. v.30-33
- He is the first individual in the New Testament who paid a price to follow Jesus.
7. Jesus comes for his healing again. V.35-41
o Jesus gives the gospel v.35
- “Son of Man” is a messianic term. Daniel 7:13-14
- Worship follows belief v.38
- Judgment follows unbelief. v.39
- Willful unbelief has no recourse. Denial of the problem does not mean that the problem does not exist. Jesus tells them that their sin remains.
i) The Good Shepherd John 10:1-21
1. The imposter v.1
o Jeremiah 23:1-2 “Woe to the shepherds who are destroying and scattering the sheep of my pasture!” declares the Lord. 2 Therefore this is what the Lord, the God of Israel, says to the shepherds who tend my people: “Because you have scattered my flock and driven them away and have not bestowed care on them, I will bestow punishment on you for the evil you have done,” declares the LorD”
o Ezekiel 34 “…This is what the Sovereign Lord says: Woe to the shepherds of Israel who only take care of themselves! Should not shepherds take care of the flock...?”
2. The real shepherd and the way of the sheep v. 2-5
o Does shepherding the “right way”.
- Enters through the gate. v.2
- Is known and let in by the watchman. v.3a
- The sheep recognize his voice. v.3b
- The shepherd knows all his sheep v.3c
- Goes on ahead calling and leading v.4
- True sheep flee from strangers v.5
3. Jesus explains the parable v 6-18
o The Jews didn’t “get it”. v.6
o Jesus is the gate. v. 7-10
- The third of the “I AM” statements.
· “I Am the Bread Of Life” John 6:35
· “I Am the Light Of The World” John 8:12
- False shepherds could not lead v.8
- All who enter through the true gate will be saved and have safe passage. v.9
- False shepherds are thieves who come to fulfill their own agenda and not provide proper care for the sheep. v.10
o Jesus is the “Good Shepherd” v.11-18
- This is the fourth of the “I Am” statements.
- This shepherd risks his very life for the sheep. v.11
- False shepherds flee since they have no “stock” or ownership in the sheep v. 12-13
- Jesus knows His sheep v.14
· Galatians 3:26-29 “…there is neither Jew nor Greek slave nor free…”
- Jesus will die for His sheep v.15
- Jesus has sheep in other sheep pens v.16
· Jesus speaks to the sheep pen of the Jews.
· Jesus also speaks about the gentiles.
- Jesus was “murdered” but only by his permission, in accordance with the will of the Father. v. 17-18
· Jesus died willingly.
· Jesus arose by His Devine power, in accordance with the will of the Father.
- John 12:23-24 “…unless a kernel of wheat falls to the ground and dies, it remains only a single seed…”
o The Jews are divided about Jesus v.19-21
- Accuse him of “having a demon”.
- Some believe HIS WORDS cf. John 5:36;
4. Jesus at the Feast of Dedication John 10:22-42
o “Hanukkah” 170-168 B.C. Antiochus Epiphanes perceives himself as a god and enters Jerusalem. He enters the temple and offers swine flesh on the altar of God. He desecrates the temple by anointing it with the broth from the swine. He erects an idol in the Most Holy Place. Some say Zeus others perhaps a pagan symbol of the Canaanites fertility rites. This feast is not mandated by God but was instituted to commemorate the cleansing of the temple in 164 B.C by Judas Maccabeus.
o Once again Jesus is questioned v.22-24.
- “Plainly tell us if you are Christ”
- Jesus had already told them plainly John5:17;8:12,24,58
o Not everyone is His sheep v. 25-26.
- John 14:11”…believe on the evidence of the miracles…”
- John 10:14 “…I know my sheep and my sheep know me…”
o Seven realities of sheep v.27-30.
- 1. Believers are sheep; the shepherd is obligated to protect them. v. 27 John 6:39
- 2. The sheep hear His voice and follow v.27
- 3. The sheep have eternal life v.28
- 4. Christ “gives” eternal life. v.28
- 5. Sheep never perish v.28
- 6. Sheep cannot be taken from Him v.29
- 7. Sheep cannot be taken from the Fathers hand. v.29
- Jesus and His Father are one in nature and essence though separate in being.
o The anger of the Jews v.30-33.
- For the fourth time they try to kill him.
- John 5:16-18; 7:1; 8:59
- Jesus is calm under fire v.32
- Once again they realize he is claiming to be God v.33
o Jesus once again points to the Old Testament Law and to His works to show the futility of the argument of the Jews. v.34-39
- Psalm 82:1, 6 God refers to the rulers and judges as “gods”.
- If those who are unjust are referred to as “gods”, why not the Holy One sent from God? v.36
- Once again the works or miracles are the proof that should have convinced. v.38-39
o Once again Jesus eludes them and slips away, not to return until the triumphal entry. v.40-42
II. Miraculous Signs; Turning To The Cross
a) Raising a dead man John 11:1-44
1. The stage is set (v.1-16)
o The man identified v.1,2
- John assumes people will know about Mary’s act of anointing Jesus feet and wiping them with her hair. Possibly the account in Luke 10:38-42
- John relates the account in 12:1-3
o The plea for help v.3
o God’s providential working for His Glory v.4-6
- Sickness and death can be God’s will for His people to bring glory to Himself. v.4
- Jesus loved Mary, Martha, and Lazarus v.5
- He stayed away for two additional days because He loved them. v.6
- Lazarus was likely dead by the time word reached Jesus. (1 day to travel to Him + 2 days delay in going + 1 day traveling to the grave = 4 days dead in the grave when Jesus got there. (v.39)
- The Jews felt that the spirit of the dead hovered for 3 days before leaving. By waiting 4 days Jesus showed that this was indeed a true resurrection and not resuscitation.
- Jesus wanted Mary and Martha to trust in Him!
o Jesus turns toward Bethany v.7-16
- The disciples are confused. v.7-8
- To walk in the light, is to see where you are going and to walk in the dark is to stumble over what you cannot see.
- Spiritually men and women are in the dark unless they come to the Truth of the light to be found in Jesus.
- Jesus is safe as long as he is in the light of His Fathers will. v.9-10
- The spiritual dullness of the disciples in regard to the metaphor of sleep meaning death is a mirror of our own spiritual dullness when we hear the word. v. 11-14
- Jesus desires that their faith may be strengthened. v.15
- Thomas though sounding cynical, demonstrates devotion to Jesus v.16
2. The Lord arrives (v. 17-36)
o The conditions v.17-19
- Lazarus has been dead 4 days v.17
- They are near Jerusalem which was a very dangerous place for Jesus to be except for the Father’s will in the matter v. 9-10;18
- Mary, Martha and Lazarus may have been fairly prominent and wealthy given the numbers who came to offer comfort. v.19
- Likely some of those who were opposed to Jesus were in the number who came. The miracle of resurrection would be done so that those who believe, and those who don’t, could see His glory manifested before them. v. 19; 46
o Faith expressed v.20-32
- Martha expresses her faith that Jesus has the power to have kept Lazarus alive, she is not expressing bitterness. v. 20-21
- Martha, not thinking immediate resurrection, none the less expresses her belief in Jesus ability to do anything. v. 22
- Jesus brings good news v.23
- Jesus will not only bring life to this dead, man but is the source of eternal life for everyone who believes. v.24-27
- “I am the resurrection…” v. 25, “…he who believes in Me will live even if he dies…”
- “I am …the life…”v.25 “…everyone who lives and believes in Me will never die…” v.26
- Martha’s faith in Jesus v.27
- Mary comes to Jesus v.29-32
- Mary makes the statement of faith as her sister v.32
- Jesus is moved in compassion for the loss but is also angry at death and perhaps even the lack of faith expressed by the wailing and mourning that seems oblivious to His presence as “the resurrection and the life”. v.33
- The original word that is translated “deeply moved in spirit and was troubled” literally means to “snort with indignation” and usually expresses displeasure of some kind. Mark 14:4 “But some were indignantly remarking to one another, “Why has this perfume been wasted…?” (Jesus head anointed with perfume in the Home of Simon the leper.)
- Jesus Christ the God-Man feels the infirmities of his people. v34-35
- The Love of Jesus was apparent to all v.36
3. The Giver of Life speaks (v.37-44)
o Some of the people dismay v.37
o Jesus is again indignant at death and blind unbelief. v.38
o Jesus commands the tomb be opened v.39-40
- Martha wavers v.39
- Jesus reassures her v.40
o Jesus calls the dead man from the tomb v.41-44
- Faith expressed by action v.41
- The unity of the Father with the Son is spoken for all to hear. v.41-42
- The command given v.43
- The dead man revived v.44
b) Reactions to resurrection John 11:45-57
1. Some believed (v. 45)
2. Some did not believe (v. 46)
3. The chief priests did not believe (v. 47-53)
o The priests held an official council v.47a.
o They feared the popularity of Jesus v. 47b.-48
- “all men will believe in him”
- “the Romans will take our place” i.e. “our position of authority”
- the Romans will come…and take our nation”
o Caiaphas thinks he has a plan. v. 49-50
- One man must die rather than the whole nation.
o Caiaphas was an unwitting prophet of what was to come. v. 51-52
- As high priest he made a prediction that even he was unaware of. v. 51
- Jesus would die for the entire nation. v.51b
- Jesus would die for the gentiles as well v. 52 “…the children of God scattered abroad.”
o The priests plotted how they might kill Jesus. v.53
4. Jesus withdrew to Ephraim (v. 54)
5. The Passover season begins (v.55-57)
o People head into Jerusalem early to take care of purification before the festival begins. v.55
o The people wonder if Jesus will show up. v.56
o The chief priests ordered any who knew of Jesus whereabouts to give him up so he could be arrested. v.57
c) Anointed for burial John 12:1-11
1. Jesus rests with beloved friends.
o This is the third and final Passover mentioned in the book of John. (John 2:13;6:4)
o Luke 10:38-42 records an earlier time when Jesus had visited the home of this family and Martha busied herself with work and struggled with Mary just sitting and listening to Jesus.
o This visit appears to have been elsewhere other than in their home.
- Mark 14:3-9 records it as the home of Simon the leper.
- Notice that when the authorities had ordered that Jesus be given up, his friends hold a celebration supper for him.
o Matthew 26:6-13 Mary not only anointed Jesus’ feet but she anointed his head as well.
- The perfume was an extract that was imported from India.
- The value quoted by Judas, (v.5) if accurate, was a year’s wage for the average worker. (I Denarius per day x 300 = 1 year of work)
- This was Mary giving the very best of what she had to the Lord she loved.
o Judas’ true nature was coming out. v. 4-6
- Matthew 26:14-16 - After this event Judas went to the chief priests to ask about betraying Jesus. “…From then on he began looking for a good opportunity to betray Jesus.”
o Jesus defends Mary v.7-8
- Matthew 26:10-13 “…where ever this gospel is preached in the whole world, what this woman has done will be spoken of in memory of her.”
2. Lazarus at risk. v.9-11
o The crowd heard that Jesus was in town and wanted to see him and especially Lazarus who had been dead. v.9
o The priests wanted to kill Lazarus. v.10
- A live Lazarus was undeniable evidence of the validity of Christ’s claims.
- Matthew 22:23 mentions that the Sadducees “…say ‘there is no resurrection’” of the body. Lazarus was evidence that needed to be done away with.
o Many Jews believed as a result of the testimony of Lazarus. v.11
d) Entry in Triumph. John 12:12-19
1. “The next day…” v.12 This would be Monday. If Jesus came to town 6 days before Passover (v.1) and Passover is the next Friday that means they held the supper on Sunday.
o Daniel 9:24-26 (538B.C.) Daniel receives the prophecy of the 70 weeks. In 445 B.C. the order is given to go and rebuild the temple. Allowing for 360 day years in the Jewish calendar, and figuring in leap years it becomes readily apparent that the year for Messiah to be cut off is from A.D. 30-33. Jesus Christ is the only one who could be the fulfillment of this prophecy.
2. The laying of the palm branches; (v.13) is an indication of royalty and veneration. When Simon Maccabeus retook Jerusalem from the Syrians they entered the city with praise and palm branches.
o Luke 19:37-44 Jesus weeps over the unbelief of Jerusalem.
3. “…Hosanna! Blessed is He who comes in the name of the LORD, even the king of Israel.”
o “Hosanna” literally “save now” Psalm 118:25-26
- The praise of the people was not lost on the Jewish elders as they call on Jesus to tell his followers to stop. Jesus responds by quoting the Septuagint. Matthew 21:12-17
o The “Hallel” (meaning “praise”) was a series of passages (Psalm 113-118) that were sung by temple choirs each year in connection with the Passover.
- Psalm 113-114 before the Passover meal.
- Psalm 115-118 after the meal.
4. The spiritual application of these events was veiled or hard to discern.
o The disciples did not understand fully until the resurrection. v.16
- John 16:12-15 “…But when He, the Spirit of truth comes, He will guide you into all truth…”
o The Jews who had come to comfort Mary and Martha gave testimony about what happened that day. v.17
- This testimony brought even more people to him. v.18
o The Pharisees are beside themselves. v.19
e) The Gospel and the Gentiles John 12:20-50
1. Phillip is approached by some Gentiles v.20-22
o “God-fearers” or proselytes.
o Why Phillip?
- Perhaps they saw him crossing the court of the Gentiles.
- Perhaps because Phillip was from Bethsaida they knew him, since the town is near a Gentile region know as the “Decapolis”.
o Phillip appears to be unsure of how to respond.
- Perhaps he remembered that Jesus had told the disciples to “…not go in the way of the Gentiles, and do not enter any city of the Samaritans.” Matthew 10:5
- In Matthew 15:24 Jesus says that he was “…sent only to the lost sheep of Israel.”
- Practically speaking, Jesus may have been very hard to reach in the crowds. He also may have wondered if it was appropriate to interrupt Jesus.
- He also may have thought that, given the circumstances with the Jewish authorities, it was too dangerous to have Jesus be seen talking with a Gentile.
- Phillip goes and gets Andrew who, being a part of Jesus inner circle may have had less a concern about peripheral elements and wanted these men to be able to talk with Jesus.
2. Jesus opens the door to salvation for all. v.23-26
o Jesus gives an answer that appears vague.
- Now His hour is near. v.23
o The full realization of His kingdom would require his death, burial, and resurrection. v.24
- The fullness of His kingdom that the people thought they desired would only be realized through his full adherence to the Fathers plan of redemption. Luke 24:13-27
o Jesus exhorts them to count the cost. v.25
- Jesus is talking about preference and priority in the believer’s life. The will of Jesus must take priority over all other relationships.
- Matthew 10:37-39 “He who loves father or mother more than Me is not worthy of me…”
- Luke 14:26-33 “…Whoever does not carry his own crass and come after me cannot be my disciple…”
o Following Jesus is not just affection but also direction. v. 26
- “…must follow me…where I am my servant will be…” The promise of eternal heaven.
- “…the Father will honor him.” The promise of eternal glory. II Timothy 2:8-10
3. The looming cross. v.27-34
o “Shall I not accomplish what I was sent here to accomplish?”
- Matthew 16:21-23”…get behind me Satan...”
o “Now my soul has become troubled…” ‘tarraso’
- John 5:4; 7 “…water is stirred…”
- Matthew 2:3 “When Herod the king heard this he was troubled…” (great distress)
- Acts 17:8 “They stirred up the crowd…”
- Hebrews 5:7 “In the days of His flesh, He offered up both prayers and supplications with loud crying and tears to the One able to save Him from death, and He was heard because of His piety.”
- John 10:17-18 “For this reason the Father loves Me, because I lay down My life so that I may take it again. No one has taken it away from Me, but I lay it down on My own initiative. I have authority to lay it down, and I have authority to take it up again. This commandment I received from My Father.”
o “Father glorify your name.” v.28
- Luke 22:42 “…not My will, but Yours be done.”
o The Father responds v.28
- Matthew 3:17 Jesus’ baptism.
- Matthew 17:5 Mount of transfiguration.
o The crowd doesn’t get it. v.29-30
- The voice was for their benefit.
- I Corinthians 2:14 “But a natural man does not accept the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually appraised.”
o The triumph of the cross. v.31-33
- Hebrews 2:14-15 “Therefore, since the children share in flesh and blood, He Himself likewise also partook of the same, that through death He might render powerless him who had the power of death, that is, the devil, and might free those who through fear of death were subject to slavery all their lives.”
- John 12:47-49 “…the word I spoke is what will judge him...”
o Rejection of a suffering messiah. v.34
- The crowd understood being “lifted up”
- They may have taken Isaiah 9:7, Ezekiel 37:25, and Daniel 7:13-14 to mean messiah would come and set up his kingdom to rule forever.
- Likely they totally missed such passages as Isaiah 53 “…But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; the chastening for our well-being fell upon Him…”(v.5)
4. The Light is hidden. v.35-50
o John 1:5-9 “The light shines in the darkness and the darkness did not comprehend it…”
o John 8:12 “…I am the light of the world; he who follows me will not walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.”
o “These things Jesus spoke and He went away and hid himself.” v.36b The light of Israel is temporarily extinguished.
o Rejection and judgment 37-50
The Gospel According To John
Jesus turns to His own: John 13:1-17:26
I. The Last Supper
a) Washing the disciples feet - John 13:1-17
1. Passover; John 13:1
o Exodus 12:7,12-13
o This would be the last God authorized Passover.
o Johns Chronology:
- John 13:1 “…before the Feast of the Passover…” i.e. the night before (Thursday)
- John 18:28 “…so that they would not be defiled, but might eat the Passover.”
- John 19:14 “Now it was the day of preparation for the Passover…”
o The Synoptic Gospels clearly say the Last Supper was a Passover meal; i.e. Matthew 26:17-19; Mark 14:12-16; Luke 22:7-15.
- Luke 22:8 “…Go and prepare the Passover for us…”
- Luke 22:15 “…I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer.”
o The solution:
- There were two different methods for reckoning days. (where Jesus and most of the 12 were from) They measured days from sunrise to sunrise.
- In the southern region (including Jerusalem) they accounted days from sunset to sunset.
- Thus there is no contradiction between the four gospels but instead all are correct depending on where you are accounting from.
o The love of Jesus
- Jesus loves “…to the end” Speaking of completeness not just duration. The word is “Telos”, it has to do with the intended purpose, the end to which something was created.
- Romans 8:31-39 “Who will separate us from the love of Christ…”
2. Judas; John 13:2; 10-11
o John 6:70 “Did I myself not choose you, the twelve, yet one of you is a devil?”
o Matthew 26:24 “The Son of Man is to go just as it is written of Him; but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed…”
3. What Jesus did; John 13:3-11
o Philippians 2:5-11 “Kenosis”
o John 8:1-11 women taken in adultery, Jesus stooped down to meet our need. In loving humility Jesus condescends to meet our need.
o F. B. Meyer “He rose from the throne, laid aside the garments of light which he had worn as his vesture, took up the poor towel of humanity, and wrapped it about His glorious person; poured His own blood into the basin of the Cross, an set Himself to wash away the foul stains of human depravity and guilt.”
o Three truths modeled that day:
- Jesus humiliation.
- The once for all cleansing of Justification versus the daily cleansing of Sanctification.
- Humble, loving service to the undeserving.
4. What Jesus is doing today
o Hebrews 4:14-16 He is a faithful High Priest.
o Romans 8:34 Jesus is interceding for us.
o I John 1:9-2:2 He will forgive us our sins.
o Psalm51 David trusted God for forgiveness.
5. What Jesus wants us to do; John 13:12-15
o John 13:15 “I have set you an example…” Jesus is responding to His disciples who had been debating about who would be the greatest in the kingdom of heaven. Luke 22:24
o I Corinthians 16:17-18 refreshing saints
o II Timothy 1:16-18 selfless saints
o Philemon 7; 20 humble saints
o John 13:17 “Now that you know these things … blessed if you do them.” serving saints
o Baptism - A symbol of Christ’s death burial and resurrection and a statement by the believer that they are one of His.
o Communion - A remembrance of the sacrifice that Christ made on our behalf and a time of reflection for the believer to ensure he is walking in fellowship with Christ.
o Foot washing - Not an ordinance but a picture of loving humble service that Christ wants us to do for other people.
b) God’s will fulfilled; Judas is revealed - John 13:18-30
1. Judas is not a true believer. v.18
o Jesus quotes Psalm 41:9 as being fulfilled in Judas. (Though it was not clear yet to the other disciples that Judas was a traitor.)
- Likely this Psalm is related to the betrayal of King David by his counselor Ahithophel when he went over to Absalom in his revolt.
- Interestingly Ahithophel hanged himself when his plans went bad. II Samuel 15-17
o Judas is lost in every way.
- Unbelief John 6:64-71
- Untrustworthy John 12:6
- Unclean John 13:10-11
- Un’-chosen John 13:18
- Unsaved John 17:12
2. The disciples reassured v.19-20
o Jesus tells them ahead of time so they will know later on that he indeed is God.
- John 8:28 Jesus tells the people that after He has been “lifted up” then they would know that “I am”.
o Jesus reminds them that they have a royal mission to fulfill. In effect they were to be the very mouth piece of God. v.20
3. Betrayal made known v.21-30
o Jesus tells the men that one of them will betray him. v.21
- John 6:64 “But there are some of you who do not believe.” For Jesus knew from the beginning who they were who did not believe, and who it was that would betray Him.
- Notice how Jesus protected Judas. Up until the very end he continued to offer Judas his love and companionship. Think of how the others might have reacted if they had been clear about Judas’s intentions. (Remember Peter and Malchus’s ear?)
o The betrayer revealed. v.22-30
- The disciples are totally confused v.22-25
- Jesus tells John the identity of the betrayer.
- The Satan possessed Judas receives his instructions from Jesus. v.27
- The disciples didn’t understand why Judas went out v.28-30
o Why didn’t the disciples get the fact that Judas was an unbeliever and a turn coat?
- The disciples are busy discussing among themselves who the betrayer may be so they don’t hear Jesus’ reply. Luke 22:23
- They also got side tracked into a discussion about who was the greatest. Luke 22:24-30
c) God’s will revealed, Jesus be glorified. John 13:31-38
1. Future glory in spite of future agony. v.31-32
o Hebrews 12:1-2 “Therefore, since we have so great a cloud of witnesses surrounding us, let us also lay aside every encumbrance and the sin which so easily entangles us, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us, fixing our eyes on Jesus, the author and perfecter of faith, who for the joy set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.”
o John 17:1 “…Father, the hour has come; glorify your son that the son may glorify you.”
2. The time is short v.33
o John 7:33-34; Jesus tells the Pharisees and the gathered people essentially the same thing only there He meant not only that they couldn’t come now but not ever because of unbelief.
3. The “11th” commandment v.34-35
o It is a “new” commandment.
- Jesus of course had said that it ranked second only to the greatest commandment; “…Love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your mind.” Matthew 22:37-40
o The “proof” is in our love
- Philippians 1:27-28 Being of “one mind.”
4. Peter’s bold, if over confident assertion. v. 36-38
o Peter asks the question first. v.36
- Peter is probably feeling a little protective at this point.
- Jesus is patient with Peter.
o Peters over confidence is made clear. v.37-38
- Peter wanted in the worse way for all this talk about betrayal and Jesus; dying to just go away.
- Jesus informs Peter about how weak he really is.
- Ultimately Peter would deny Jesus with a curse. Mark 14:66-72
d) Jesus comforts His own John 14:1-14
1. Jesus is God v.1 (Comforted by His presence.)
o Jesus puts Himself on a par with God.
o In the middle of His own struggle He is looking after the welfare of His disciples.
2. Jesus is preparing a place. v.2-3 (Comforted by His preparation)
o “Many dwelling places” – speaks of ample room, a place for everyone.
- He is preparing a place for you!
o He will come again for us.
- Revelation 21:9-27 – a magnificent description of the glories of heaven.
3. Jesus is the way, and you know Him. v.4-6 (His declaration)
o Jesus say’s “you know the way” v.4
- Thomas missed it at first. v.5
o Jesus is the way the truth and the life. v.6
- The “way”; Acts 4:12 “And there is salvation in no one else; for there is no other name under heaven that has been given among men by which we must be saved.”
- The “Truth”; John 1:14-17 “…grace and truth were realized through Jesus Christ.”
- “…truth for John, while also being propositional, is at the heart a personal, relational concept that has its roots and origin in none other than God Himself.”
--“What Ever Happened To Truth” pg.21--
- The “Life”; John 1:4 “In Him was life, and the life was the light of men.” I John 1:1-4 “…the eternal life which was with the Father…”
o “…Jesus is going to the Father, and his disciples are to follow him; for them he is himself the way to the Father. He is in fact, the only way by which men and women may come to the Father; there is no other way. If this seems offensively exclusive, let it be borne in mind that the one who makes this claim is the incarnate Word, the revealer of the Father. If God has no avenue of communication with mankind apart from His Word (incarnate or otherwise), mankind has no avenue of approach apart from that same Word, who became flesh and dwelt among us in order to supply such an avenue of approach.” F. F. Bruce pg. 298
4. Jesus, one with the Father. v.7-11(Comforted by who He is)
o John 10:27-30 “…I and the Father are one.”
o John 8:26-29 “…I speak these things as the Father taught me…”
o John 12:48-49 “…the Father Himself who sent me has given me a commandment as to what to say and what to speak.”
o John 6:36 “…the very works that I do testify about me, that the Father has sent me.”
o John 10:25 “…the works that I do in My Father’s name, these testify of me.”
5. Jesus is Powerful. v.12 (Comforted by his might)
o Hebrews 1:1-4 “…When he had made purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the majesty in heaven.”
o Philippians 2:10-11 “…so that at the name of Jesus every knee will bow, of those in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord to the glory of God the Father.”
o I Corinthians 15:5-8 “…After that he appeared to more than five hundred brethren at one time…”
o Acts 2:14-41 “But Peter taking his stand with the eleven, raised his voice and declared to them…So then those who received his word were baptized; and that day there were added about three thousand souls.”
6. Jesus is true. V.13-14 (Comforted by his promise.)
- Matthew 6:10 “You kingdom come. Your will be done. On earth as it is in heaven.” Submissive to Gods will
- Matthew 6:25-32 “…your heavenly Father knows that you need all these things.” As an expression of dependence
- Romans 15:6 “…you may with one voice glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.” Desiring God’s glory
e) Jesus promises the Holy Spirit John 14:15-26
1. Obedience is an expression of the believers love for Jesus. v.15
2. Jesus gives “another” Helper like himself v.16-17
o The Spirit is a person. v.16
- Intellect: Romans 8:27 “And He who searches our hearts knows the mind of the Spirit…”
- Emotion: Ephesians 4:30 “and don’t grieve the Holy Spirit of God with whom you were sealed for the day of redemption.”
- Will: I Corinthians 12:11 “All these are the work of one and the same Spirit and He gives to each one just as He determines.”
o The Spirit is Truth v.17
- The Spirit comes in a new way.
- Much like the “If you had known me, you would have known my Father also…” (v.7), so also if we know Christ we will know the Spirit.
- The Spirit brings a new thing in that He will take up residence within His people.
- Jesus calls him the “Spirit of Truth” to emphasize His ministry of revealing truth.
3. Jesus himself will be with His people. v.18-20
o He will not “leave them as orphans” v.18
- Jesus would be resurrected; these men will see him again.
- Through the indwelling of the Holy Spirit Jesus will be with them always.
o The unbelieving world will not see Him.v.19
- After His resurrection He only appeared to believers. I Corinthians 15:1-11
o The believer will know Jesus is with them v.20
- Romans 8:1 “Therefore there is now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus.”
- II Corinthians 5:17 “Therefore if anyone is in Christ he is a new creature; the old things passed away; behold new things have come.”
- Galatians 2:20 “I have been crucified with Christ; and it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me; and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave Himself for me.”
4. The Father will be with His people. v.21-24
o The Father is with those who keep the commands of Jesus v.21
o Jesus and the Father will only be disclosed to those who love Him.
- I John 2:3 “By this we know that we have come to know Him, if we keep His commandments.”
5. The Holy Spirit will be with His people. v.25-26
o The Holy Spirit is the one who would remind them of the teachings of Jesus. v.26
- II Timothy 3:16 “All Scripture is inspired by God and is profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness.”
- II Peter 1:20-21 “…no prophecy of scripture is a matter of one’s own interpretation, for no prophecy was ever made by an act of human will, but men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from god.”
- I John 2:20; 27 …you have an anointing from the Holy One…you have no need for anyone to teach you…you abide in Him.”
f) Jesus promises peace John 14:27-31
1. Peace with God “Peace I leave with you…” v.27a.
o Mankind is at war with God.
- Genesis 3 – the fall of man.
- Romans 3:23 “For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God.”
- Romans 3:10-18 “There is none righteous, not even one…”
- Luke 11:23 “He who is not with me is against me; and he who does not gather with me scatters.”
- Humanity hates God John 15:18-19 “…you know that it has hated me before it hated you…”
o Mankind can have peace with God.
- Ephesians 2:13-18 “…For He Himself is our peace…”
- Romans 5:1 “Therefore having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ.”
- Romans 8:15 “…you have received a spirit of adoption as sons by which we cry out Abba Father.”
- Romans 1:16-17 “…the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith…” Justification by faith.
- II Corinthians 5:21 “He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.” Substitutionary atonement, imputation.
2. Peace of God “…My peace I give to you…” v.27b.
o Philippians 4:6-7 “Be anxious for nothing, but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God. And the peace of God, which surpasses all comprehension, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus.”
o Galatians 5:22-23 “But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness…”
o Hebrews 12:1-3 “…fixing our eyes on Jesus, the author and perfecter of faith…”
3. Peace that is unlike the Worlds peace. v.27c.
o Peace – not just the absence of turmoil and discord but positively peace is: completeness, wholeness, contentment, welfare, health, prosperity, harmony, and fulfillment.
o Jeremiah 6:13b.-14 “…from the prophet even to the priest everyone deals falsely. They have healed the brokenness of my people superficially, saying peace, peace. But there is no peace.”
4. We should not be afraid. v.27d.
o “There is peace in the midst of my storm tossed life, there’s an anchor, there’s a rock I can cast my fate upon. Jesus rides in my vessel so I’ll fear no alarm, He gives me peace in the midst of the storm.”
o Isaiah 26:3 “The steadfast of mind you will keep in perfect peace because he trusts in you.”
o Matthew 6:25-34 “…But seek first His kingdom and His righteousness, and all these things will be added to you…”
o II Corinthians 4:8-9; 17-18 “…while we look not at the things which are seen…”
5. Jesus speaks of home. v.28-31
o “…I go away and I will come to you…”v.28
- Jesus would die, Jesus would be resurrected.
o If they really loved him in a selfless way they would rejoice for him.
- They were more concerned with their own loss of his presence and didn’t even think of what joy it would be for him to go to the Father.
o “…the Father is greater than I.” v.28
- Jesus has said repeatedly that He is equal with the Father. John 5:17-18; 8:58; 10:30 “…I and the Father are one…”; 14:9 “…he who has seen me has seen the Father…:
- Philippians 2:5-11 “kenosis” (emptying)
II. On the way to the garden
a) Jesus is the vine John 15:1-17; 7th “I Am” statement.
1. Israel is pictured as the vine.
o Psalm 80:8 “You removed a vine from Egypt…”
o Isaiah 5:1-7 Israel is an unfaithful, unfruitful vineyard.
o Matthew 21:33-43 This is the parable of the landowner who planted a vineyard and the growers killed or beat his representatives. They also killed the landowner’s son. It pictures Israel and the transference of the kingdom of God to others.
2. “I am the true vine…” v.1a
o True as in real or legitimate, or genuine, not a copy or type.
3. The Father is the “vine dresser” or farmer v.1b
4. The Vinedresser “takes away” or removes unfruitful or dead branches. v.2a
o v. 6 “…he is thrown away as a branch and dries up…and cast them into the fire…”
o “Every branch in me…” John 6:70 “Did I not choose you, the twelve, and yet one of you is a devil?” False disciples.
5. The vinedresser prunes the fruitful branch so it may be more fruitful. v.2b
o Galatians 5:22-23 “…the fruit of the spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, self control…”
6. The disciples are already “clean” v.3
o “Faith comes from hearing, and hearing by the word of Christ.” Romans 10:17
- Somehow in all of the interaction with the Lord, Jesus saw true, saving faith in these eleven men.
7. “Abide” v.4 – first key word in this passage.
o No abiding, no fruitfulness v.4-7;9-10
- I John 3:21-24 “…The one who keeps His commandments abides in Him, and He in him. We know by this that He abides in us, by the Spirit whom He has given us.”
- Not abiding is one of the signs of a false prophet: Matthew 7:15-20 “…So then you will know them by their fruits.”
8. “Bear fruit” v.4 – second key word in this passage.
o We bear fruit in many ways. v.4-5;8
- When we win others to Christ (Rom. 1:13).
- We are a part of the harvest (John 4:35–38).
- Growth in holiness and obedience, (Rom. 6:22).
- Christian giving is fruit from a dedicated life (Rom. 15:28).
- “The fruit of the Spirit” (Gal. 5:22–23)
- Our good works, our service, grow out of our abiding life (Col. 1:10).
- Praise that comes from our hearts and lips is fruit to the glory of God (Heb. 13:15).
9. Apart from Jesus we can do nothing. v.5
o QUESTION: Is visible fruit always profitable? Can visible fruit be deceiving? I.e. think of large succulent looking apples that are almost totally tasteless.
o It would seem that a characteristic of the true believer is fruitfulness “…he bears much fruit…”
10. Lack of fruit is cause for removal. v.6
o Like the unproductive orchard, the unfruitful face destruction. (v.6;8)
- He is not just talking about believers who have slid. Ultimately all who are truly in the vine will produce fruit. (v.5)
- No fruit, no abiding; no abiding, no life.
11. Abiding is receiving. v.7-8
o “…ask whatever you wish…” v.7
- This needs to be a wish that conforms to the will of God. (v.16; 14:12-14)
- The conditions are as outlined on page 62 in these notes. (Comforted by His promise)
- James 4:3 “You ask and do not receive, because you ask with wrong motives, so that you may spend it on your pleasures.”
o Fruit bearing is proof of discipleship. v.8
- The fruit of answered prayer is one of the proofs of discipleship.
- Our will so conformed to His will that we will and want what God wants.
12. Abiding involves obeying. v.9-10
o For the sake of the love of Jesus for us we are exhorted to obey. v.9
o Obedience leads to a deeper understanding of the love of Christ. v.10
- What does this mean?
- Is it always easy?
- Is obedience costly?
b) Jesus’ disciples and the world John 15:18-16:4
1. Hated: for not being a part of the world. v.18-19
o John 15:18-19; I John 3:12 “Cain…was of the evil one and slew his brother. And for what reason did he slay him? Because his deeds were evil, and his brother’s were righteous.”
o Proverbs 29:27b “…he who is upright in the way is abominable to the wicked.”
o Philippians 2:15 “…prove yourselves to be blameless and innocent, children of God above reproach in the midst of a crooked and perverse generation, among whom you appear as lights in the world.”
o The world loves its own.
They hate those who are not a part.
They hate exclusivity. “I am the way, and the Truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father but through me.” John 14:6
o Not of the world because Jesus chose them out of the world.
John 15:16 “You did not choose me, I chose you…”
Ephesians 1:3:-6 “…He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world…”
2. Hated: because of Christ. v. 18b, 20
o John 13:16 “…a slave is not greater than his master…”
o John 5:16 “…the Jews were persecuting Jesus’ because he was doing these things on the Sabbath.” – healing the lame man
5:18 “…seeking to kill him…calling God his own Father…”
7:1 “…the Jews were seeking to kill him.”
7:32 “…the chief priests and the Pharisees sent officers to seize Him.”
8:59; 10:31 “…they picked up stones to throw at Him…”
11:53 “…they planned together to kill Him.”
o Hebrews 12:3 “…consider Him who has endured such hostility by sinners against Himself, so that you will not grow weary and lose heart.
3. Hated: the world does not know God. v.21-25
o II Chronicles 32:10-19 “…His servants spoke further against the LORD God and against His servant Hezekiah…”
o Matthew 5:11 “Blessed are you when people insult you and persecute you, and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of Me.”
o Matthew 24:9 “…they will deliver you to tribulation, and will kill you, and you will be hated by all nations because of My name.”
o Ephesians 2:1 “dead in trespasses and sins”
o Hebrews 6:4-6 “For in the case of those who have once been enlightened and have tasted of the heavenly gift and have been made partakers of the Holy Spirit, and have tasted the good word of God and the powers of the age to come, and then have fallen away, it is impossible to renew them again to repentance, since they again crucify to themselves the Son of God and put Him to open shame.”
o Their hatred was a fulfillment of scripture. v.25
Jesus quoted from Psalm 35:19 or 69:4
4. The testimony of the Spirit. v.26-27
o Romans 8:14:17 “For all who are being led by the Spirit of God, these are sons of God. For you have not received a spirit of slavery leading to fear again, but you have received a spirit of adoption as sons by which we cry out, “Abba! Father!” The Spirit Himself testifies with our spirit that we are children of God, and if children, heirs also, heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ, if indeed we suffer with Him so that we may also be glorified with Him.”
o Acts 1:8 “…but you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be My witnesses both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and even to the remotest part of the earth.”
c) The giving of the Holy Spirit John 16:5-15
1. The disciples were focused on themselves. v.5-7
o John 13:36 Peter asked Jesus where he was going but Peter was feeling a little possessive and more than a little threatened at the prospect of losing Jesus.
o John 14:5 Thomas was expressing more a feeling of frustration and discouragement than a true interest in where Jesus was going.
These men simply could not imagine Jesus leaving them much less being publicly humiliated and killed.
o It was to the disciple’s advantage that Jesus goes away.
If Jesus did not go away to die and be resurrected there would be no justification.
If Jesus did not go away there would be no sending of the Holy Spirit.
o The Jesus had to leave first because:
The Spirit’s ministry is to reveal Christ and His work. This could not be fully accomplished until Jesus had died, been resurrected, and ascended to heaven. John 7:37-39
The Spirit’s coming was vindication that Jesus was who He said He was and that He accomplished all He was sent to accomplish. Acts 2:33 “Therefore having been exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, He has poured forth this which you both see and hear.”
2. The Spirit convicts. v.8-11
“To prove guilty of an offense or crime.’
“To convince of wrong doing or sinfulness.”
o Conviction of sin. v.9
Romans 3:10-18 “There is none righteous, not even one…”
John 6:44 “No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him…”
The ultimate sin the Holy Spirit brings under conviction is the sin of rejecting Jesus.
John 3:18 “He who believes in Him is not judged; he who does not believe has been judged already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.”
o Conviction of righteousness. v.10
The resurrection and ascension of Jesus is primary in the conviction of righteousness
Acts 2:36 “Therefore let all the house of Israel know for certain that God has made Him both Lord and Christ…”
Philippians 2:9-11 “For this reason also, God highly exalted Him, and bestowed on Him the name which is above every name, so that at the name of Jesus every knee will bow, of those who are in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and that every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.”
Matthew 5:48 “Therefore you are to be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect.”
o Conviction concerning judgment. v.11
“…the ruler of this world has been judged.” The judgment of Satan is a sober warning to those who reject Jesus and follow after Satan in rebellion against God.
I John 3:8 “the one who practices sin is of the devil; for the devil has sinned from the beginning. The Son of God appeared for this purpose, to destroy the works of the devil.”
Colossians 2:15 “When He had disarmed the rulers and authorities, He made a public display of them, having triumphed over them through Him.”
Hebrews 2:14-15 “Therefore, since the children share in flesh and blood, He Himself likewise also partook of the same, that through death He might render powerless him who had the power of death, that is, the devil, and might free those who through fear of death were subject to slavery all their lives.”
3. The Spirit reveals Truth. v. 12-15
o The disciples where about at the breaking point.
The disciples were emotionally drained.
Luke 18:29-34 “…But the disciples understood none of these things…”
John 12:16 “These things His disciples did not understand at the first; but when Jesus was glorified, then they remembered that these things were written of Him, and that they had done these things to Him.”
Without the cross and the resurrection, the disciples were incapable of fully understanding the meaning and ramification of much of what Jesus said.
d) Jesus Speaks of His departure and return John 16:16-33
1. “A little while”. v.16-23
o The first “little while” refers to the events of the death, burial, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus. “A little while and you will no longer see me…”
o The second “little while” is debated.
For some it is the passage of time until His second coming to earth.
For others it is the three days he would be dead and buried. But this would mean sorrow again since He would only be with them for approximately 40 days and then would ascend into heaven.
For still others it is that “a little while” refers to the time between Jesus departure and the arrival of the Holy Spirit.
· “…He will take of mine…” v.14
· “ …it is to your advantage that I go away…” v. 7
· “…Lo I am with you always.” Matt.28:20
· “…seeking to know …the Spirit of Christ within them…” I Peter 1:11
o The disciples struggled to understand what Jesus meant by “a little while” v.17-18
Jesus has been speaking for some time now and it is if they are reluctant to interrupt.
Jesus had said they could not bear more information. v.12
They were struggling with His approaching death and so were grieving.
If Jesus was going to set up His kingdom, why leave? And if He really is not setting up His kingdom, why come back?
o Without hearing it, Jesus knows their conversation and moves to answer their question. v.19-22
The disciples would know the joy of the presence of the Holy Spirit within them.
Though initially painful they would rejoice and move beyond the whole experience of seeing him leave.
Even more important than the disciples seeing Jesus is the fact that He will see them. v.22
o The disciples will no longer have to ask Jesus their questions. v.23
They will have the guidance of the indwelling Spirit.
They can go directly to the Father in Jesus name.
2. Faith, Hope, Love v. 24-33
o Love v.24-27a. The central theme of prayer.
The way is to be opened for the disciples to go directly to the Father.
Hebrews 4:14-16 “Therefore since we have a great high priest…”
Hebrews 10:19-22 “Therefore since we have confidence to enter the holy place…”
v. 27a “for, the Father himself loves you…”
· John 14:13-14 “…if you ask Me anything in my name I will do it.”
· John 15:7 “…ask whatever you wish and it will be done for you.”
· John 15:26 “…whatever you ask of the Father in my name He may give to you.”
I Peter 2:9“But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God’s own possession, so that you may proclaim the excellencies of Him who has called you out of darkness into His marvelous light;”
o Faith v. 27b-32
In verse 28 Jesus gives a summary of His entire mission in coming to the earth: “I came forth from the Father; -His incarnation- and have come into the world; -His humiliation- I am leaving the world again; -His resurrection and ascension- and going to the Father.” –His exaltation.
John 17:6-8 Jesus affirms to the Father the belief of the disciples. “…they received…understood…and they believed the You sent me.”
Warren Wiersbe “The testimony of the disciples must have gladdened Christ’s heart, but He warned them of their coming failure (v. 32). Even the Father would finally forsake Christ on the cross!”
Galatians 3:23-26 “before faith came, we were kept in custody under the law, being shut up to the faith which was later to be revealed Therefore the Law has become our tutor to lead us to Christ, so that we may be justified by faith. But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a tutor. For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus.”
o Hope v.33
There is victory in the Word and prayer.
I Corinthians 13:7;13
Jesus is our hope!
Jesus is our Joy!
e) Jesus prays for himself, his disciples and us. John 17 made up of 26 verses. Verse 1-5 Jesus prays for himself and for the Glory of God to be manifested in and through Him. Verse 6-10 Jesus prays for those whom His father had given to Him and in verse 11-19 Jesus prayed specific requests for them. Lastly in verse 20-26 Jesus prayed for those who would believe their message and would come to faith in Him.
1. Jesus prays for Himself John 17:1-5
o “Father…” Jesus acknowledges the Fatherhood of God and His own submission to Him. He also is claiming to be God. He is seen here as equal to God the Father yet distinct.
o “The hour has come…” v.1
To Mary; John 2:4 “…Woman, what does that have to do with us? My hour has not yet come.”
To his brothers; 7:6 “…My time is not yet here…”
In regard to those who would harm him; 7:30“…no man laid his hand on Him, because His hour had not yet come.”
In regard to his exchange with the Jews; 8:20 “…no one seized Him, because His hour had not yet come.”
o “…glorify your son...Son may glorify you.” v.1
The display of God’s glory
· Grace and mercy; Ephesians 2:1-10 “…we are His workmanship…”
· God’s love; I John 4:9-10 “…in this is love, not that we have loved God…”
· Imputed righteousness, Justification, propitiation; Romans 3:25-26 “…propitiation in His blood…just and the justifier…”
· Satan defeated; Hebrews 2:14 “…render powerless him who had the power of death…”
· Death defeated; I Corinthians 15:54-58 “…death is swallowed up in victory…”
· The wisdom of God’s eternal plan; I Corinthians 2:6-9 …they would not have crucified the Lord of Glory…”
o “…to all whom you have given Him…” v.2
Five times in this prayer Jesus speaks of “those whom you have given…” v.2, twice in v.6, v.9, v.24.
Remember John 6:37-40:44-45 “All that the Father gives to me will come to me…”
QUESTION: Since God’s people are the Father’s gift to His Son, would the Father present His Son with a gift that would not last? Romans 8:28-39
Judas never was one of Christ’s own.
· John 6:64-71 he is not a believer.
· John 13:11 he is not clean.
· John 13:18 he is not chosen.
· John 18:8-9 he is never given to Christ.
o “…that they may know You…and Jesus Christ…” v.3
John 5:24 “…has eternal life, and does not come into judgment…”
o “I have glorified you on the earth…Now, Father, glorify Me…”
Isaiah 6:1-4 “…the whole earth is full of His glory…”
2. Jesus prays for His disciples John 17:6-19
o Jesus had “manifested Your name”; the Fathers name, to the world. The name of God is a reflection of all that He is; His nature, character and attributes. v.6a
Psalm 9:10“…those who know Your name will put their trust in You, For You, O Lord, have not forsaken those who seek You”
Psalm 20:7“Some boast in chariots and some in horses, But we will boast in the name of the Lord, our God.”
Psalm 22:22“I will tell of Your name to my brethren; In the midst of the assembly I will praise You.”
o Jesus say’s that the disciples were the Fathers first but then He gave them to Jesus. v.6b, 9
John 6:37“All that the Father gives Me will come to Me, and the one who comes to Me I will certainly not cast out.”
John 6:44 “No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him; and I will raise him up on the last day.”
Paul and Barnabas at Pisidian Antioch Acts 13:42-48 “…and as many as had been appointed to eternal life believed.”
Paul at Corinth Acts 18:9-10 “…no one will attack you in order to harm you, for I have many people in this city.”
Ephesians 1:4 “just as He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and blameless before Him…”
o Jesus affirms the faith of His disciples v.7-8
John 16:29-31 “…now we know…that you came from God.”
Romans 8:16 “The Spirit Himself testifies with our spirit that we are children of God,”
II Timothy 2:19 ‘Nevertheless, the firm foundation of God stands, having this seal, “The Lord knows those who are His,”’
o Jesus claims equality with the Father v.10
“All things that are mine are yours…” well and good, but Jesus goes on to make the very profound claim that “…and yours are mine…” Jesus claims equality with the Father.”
o Spiritual protection for His disciples v.11-19
John MacArthur “Christ’s prayer in this chapter provides a priceless preview of His current intercessory work, which did not formally begin until after His ascension…this petition marks the transition from his earthly ministry to His heavenly ministry.” Vol. 2 pg. 273
Romans 8:26 “…the Spirit Himself intercedes for us with groaning to deep for words.”
Hebrews 7:25 “He is able also to save forever those who draw near to God through Him, since He always lives to make intercession for them.”
Romans 8:29-30 “The golden chain of salvation”
Spiritual unity v.11b: Common love for the Lord I John 4:19-21; commitment to His word Ephesians 4:13;love for His people Colossians 3:14; separation from ungodliness I John 2:15-17
The Fathers keeping v.11-12 Ephesians 1:13-14 “In Him, you also, after listening to the message of truth, the gospel of your salvation—having also believed, you were sealed in Him with the Holy Spirit of promise, who is given as a pledge of our inheritance, with a view to the redemption of God’s own possession, to the praise of His glory.”
3. Jesus prays for all believers. John 17:20-26
o Jesus prays for future believers. v. 20
Those who follow antichrist: Revelation 13:8 “All who dwell on the earth will worship him, everyone whose name has not been written from the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb who has been slain.”
“…those who believe in me…” On the one hand, “No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent me draws him…” John 6:44 On the other hand “…if you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved; for with the heart a person believes, resulting in righteousness, and with the mouth he confesses, resulting in salvation.” Romans 10:9-10
The fact that the Father draws the lost to Himself, does not remove the churches responsibility to evangelize. “Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age.” Matthew 28:19-20
o “That they all may be one…” v.21a
“Therefore if there is any encouragement in Christ, if there is any consolation of love, if there is any fellowship of the Spirit, if any affection and compassion, make my joy complete by being of the same mind, maintaining the same love, united in spirit, intent on one purpose.” Philippians 2:1-2
Same mind; Spirit controlled living based on a love and knowledge of the word of God.
Same love; that is a love based on choice and not just feeling. There is equality.
United in spirit; “one-souled” passionate common commitment to the same spiritual goals.
One purpose; having the same goal of advancing the kingdom of God.
o “…that the world may know that you sent me.” v. 21- b-23
“Let your light shine before men in such a way that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father who is in heaven.” Matthew 5:16
Unity in the church is evidence to the world that the Father sent the Son. v.21
Unity in the church is evidence to the world that the Father has loved those who have loved His Son. v.23
o “…that they…may be with Me…” v.24
“Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power and riches and wisdom and might and honor and glory and blessing.”And every created thing which is in heaven and on the earth and under the earth and on the sea, and all things in them, I heard saying, “To Him who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb, be blessing and honor and glory and dominion forever and ever.” Revelation 5:12-13
The Gospel According To John
Jesus: Crucifixion and Resurrection: John 18:1-21:25
- The Crucifixion
a) The arrest and trial – John 18:1-19:16
1. Arrest John 18:1-12
o “…went forth with His disciples…” Likely they were already well on their way since it appears that Jesus was teaching as they went along. (John 14:31 “…get up’ let us go from here.”)
o “…there was a garden, in which He entered with His disciples.” Matthew 26:36 say’s it was “a place called Gethsemane”. (Literally “oil press”) On the slope of the Mount of Olives.
o Judas and his band; v.2-3
- “Detachment of troops” or “Roman Cohort” The Roman Cohort was made up of 5 Maniples of 200 men each all under the command of a “chili arch” or “leader of a thousand.” Typically like modern day armies they were under strength and so approximated 600 men.
- Likely only a maniple or two was sent on this mission. Enough men to warrant the commanding officer accompanying them.
- “Officers from the chief priests” Temple police who would have been the arresting authority in this case. The Legionnaires were there to insure that there was no insurrection afoot.
- “Lanterns and torches and weapons” These guys came prepared for a flight and perhaps a fight.
o Jesus speaks first; v.4-11 Master in control
- Jesus opens the discussion v.4 “Whom do you seek?”
- The power of Jesus name; v.5-6.
· The word He is not in the original so it would read “I am”.
· John 10:17-18 “…I lay it (my life) down on my own initiative…”
· It is clear from John’s presentation that Judas was among those who fell before Christ.
· Some make the ridiculous charge that they were startled and so tripped over each other.
- Jesus protects His men; v.7-9.
· His commanding presence directs His opponents in what is to transpire next.
· “…of those whom you have given Me I lost not one.” John 17:12
· Jesus twice asks them who they want. It is as if by forcing them to be clear about who it was they wanted, Jesus could then force the question of letting his men go.
- Peter strikes; v.10-11.
· Luke 22:38 records that the disciples had 2 swords with them.
· Luke 22:49 records that when the disciples saw what was going to happen the said “…Lord shall we strike with the sword?”
· Luke 22:51 “But Jesus answered and said ‘stop! no more of this.’ and He touched his ear and healed him.” Jesus makes an ear.
· John identifies Peter as the attacker that the slaves name as Malchus. The other gospels leave this detail out. Perhaps to protect Peter from reprisals?
· Jesus strongly rebuffs Peter’s attempt at force.
o The soldiers place Jesus under arrest. v12.
2. Trial John 18:13-19:16
The six trials of Jesus:
o John 18:12-23 - First trial – Jewish
- Trial before Annas
- Peter enters the court yard. v.15-18
· First denial of Jesus
- Officer strikes Jesus. v.22-23
- Peter’s second and third denials. v.25-27
· Luke 22:55-62 “…The Lord turned and looked at Peter. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord…”
o Matthew 26:57-68 – Second trial – Jewish
- Trial before Caiaphas
- False witnesses brought in v.59-61
- Caiaphas taunts Jesus v.62-63
- Jesus states clearly that He is the Son of God. i.e. the Messiah v.64
- Accused of blasphemy v.65
- Condemned to death v.66
- Mocked, struck, spit on. v67-68
o Matthew 27:1-2 – Third trial – Jewish
- Official meeting of the Sanhedrin
- Jesus is officially condemned and sent to Pilot for execution.
o John 18:28-38 – Fourth trial – Roman/civil
- Jesus is lead to the Praetorium to be examined by Pilot. v.68
- The Jews have a meticulous concern for ritual purity even as they are in the process of trying to have Jesus killed.
- Pilot gives in to their sensibilities and comes out to them. v.29
- Pilot mocks the Jews v.30-31
- Jesus prediction about his death is fulfilled. v.32
· John 3:14 “As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up.”
- Pilot gains some understanding about who Jesus claims to be. v.33-37
- “What is truth?” Pilot’s confused perhaps frustrated question to Jesus.
o Luke 23:6-12 Fifth trial – Roman/civil
- Pilot tries to move the responsibility to Herod. v.5-7
· Herod had earlier wanted to kill Jesus. Luke 13:31
· Remember John the Baptist
- Herod now wants to see Jesus. v.8
· Remember how Herod was enamored with John. Mark 6:20 “for Herod was afraid of John, knowing that he was a righteous and holy man, and he kept him safe. And when he heard him, he was very perplexed; but he used to enjoy listening to him.”
- Jesus never answers or speaks to Herod.
- Herod and his men also mock and treat the Lord cruelly. v.11
o John 18: 39-19:6 Sixth trial – Roman/civil
- Pilot makes his first attempt to set Jesus free. v.39-40
- After scourging, mocking and further abuse, Pilot hopes the physically broken and disfigured Jesus would be acceptable by the people for release. v1-5
- When the people continue to cry out “crucify; crucify!” Pilot mocks them by telling them to do it themselves. Pilot knows the Jews do not have the authority to execute Jesus. The Jews need his favor! v.6
o John 19:7-16 The death sentence is given.
- In their response the Jews bow to Pilot’s premise but they also bring fear to Pilot with the statement that Jesus had claimed to be “the son of God”. v.7-8
- “Where are you from…” highlights Pilot’s concern. He already knew Jesus was from Galilee so the question was more along the lines of wanting to find out if he indeed was a son of god. v.9
- Poor Pilot, he really had no clue how thin the thread was that held his power. Jesus makes it clear where real power resides and who it was that was most culpable for Jesus persecution. v.10-11
· Isaiah 53:7 “…like a lamb that is led to slaughter, and like a sheep that is silent before it’s shearers, so He did not open His mouth.”
- Caving into fear and intimidation, Pilot gives in to the demands of the Jews. v.12-13
· Pilot would have had his judgment (bema) seat moved into place where he then would sit and officially pass sentence on the condemned Jesus.
· Matthew 27:19 “…his wife sent him a message, saying, ‘have nothing to do with that righteous man; for last night I suffered greatly in a dream because of Him.”
- Pilot continues to mock the Jews by referring to Jesus as “you king”. v.14
- The enraged Jews cry out for Jesus to be crucified. v.15
· When Pilot once again refers to Jesus as their king they disclaim any king but Caesar.
· Matthew 27:25 “And all the people said, ‘His blood shall be on us and on our children.”
· I Samuel 8:7 “…Listen to the voice of the people in regard to all that they say to you, for they have not rejected you, but they have rejected Me from being king over them.”
- Pilot hands Jesus over. v.16
· Isaiah 53:10 “But the LORD was pleased to crush Him, putting Him to grief…”
· Luke 22:22 “For indeed, the Son of Man is going as it has been determined; but woe to that man by whom He is betrayed.”
· Acts 2:23 “…predetermined plan...nailed to the cross…put Him to death.”
· Acts 3:13-15 “…Jesus, the one whom you delivered and disowned in the presence of Pilot…”
· Acts 4:27-28 “…to do whatever Your hand and Your purpose predestined to occur.”
b) Crucifixion and burial - John 19:17-42
1. Crucifixion John 19:17-30
o As was typical for a Roman crucifixion, Jesus was made to carry the instrument of His death to the crucifixion site. v.17
- The site would have been prominent along the road for maximum humiliation of the victim, and as a deterrent to other potential malefactors.
- Matthew 27:32 “…they found a man of Cyrene named Simon, whom they pressed into service to bear His cross.”
o Jesus is crucified as a common criminal v.18
- Matthew 27:34 Jesus refused the wine mixed with gall in order to not have His senses numbed.
- Mark 15:25 “It was the third hour when they crucified Him.” 9:00 am
- Luke 23:39-43 records the interaction between Jesus and the two criminals beside Him.
o One more slap at the Jews by Pilot v.19-22
o The Soldiers gamble for Jesus clothes. v.23-25
- In the midst of the soldier’s indulgence of themselves, Jesus makes the first of seven recorded statements or “cries from the cross”.
· Luke 23:34 “…Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing…”
· Luke 23:43 “…Truly I say to you, today you shall be with Me in paradise.”
· John 19:26-27 “Woman, behold your son…Behold your mother…”
· Matthew 27:46 “…My God, My God, why have You forsaken me?”
· John 19:28 “…I am thirsty.”
· John 19:30 “…It is finished…”
· Luke 23:46 “…Father, into Your hand I commit My spirit…”
o The final moments of Jesus’ life. v.26-30
- As the oldest son, Jesus provides for the care of his mother. v.25-28
- Totally in control of himself and these events, Jesus ensures that all the prophecies about him were fulfilled. v.28-29
· Darkness comes over the land from the sixth to the ninth hour; noon to 3:00 pm. Matthew 27:45
· Jesus died around the ninth hour, meaning He was on the cross for approximately 6 hours. It was fairly common for it to take two or even three days for victims to die.
- When everything was fulfilled in accordance with the Fathers plan, Jesus released His spirit into the Fathers care. v.30
· Matthew 27: 50-54 “And behold, the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom; and the earth shook and the rocks were split…”
2. Burial John 19:31-42
o In hypocritical denial, the Jews ask to have the men’s death accelerated and the bodies removed.
- They likely were referring to Deuteronomy 21:22-23 where hanging would come after execution as a final form of disgrace.
- Paul refers to this passage when he said in Galatians 3:13 “Christ redeemed us from the curse of the Law, having become a curse for us – for it is written, ‘Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree’.”
o The breaking of the legs was the typical way for the executers to hurry death. (crucifragium) v.32-37
- Jesus of course was already dead so they did not break His legs.
· Psalm 34:20 “He keeps all his bones, not one of them is broken.”
· Jesus is the ultimate Passover Lamb and so according to God’s direction about how to prepare and eat the lamb; Numbers 9:12 “They shall leave none of it until morning, nor break a bone of it according to all the statute of the Passover they shall observe it.”
- The soldiers, wanting to ensure that Jesus was indeed dead, pierce His side with a spear. v.34
· Zechariah 12:10 “…they will look on Me whom they have pierced; and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son…”
- John emphasizes the fact that what he has related is true. He knows it is true by being personally present when the events unfolded. John is pushing back against all of the heretical views that would somehow say that Jesus did not really die. v.35
o Down from the cross, laid in a tomb. v. 38-42
- Two members of the Sanhedrin take the body of Jesus down from the cross and place it in a tomb with embalming spices and wraps in the Jewish manner. v.38-40
- v. 41-42 The tomb belonged to Joseph of Arimathea. Matthew 27:59-60 “…Joseph took the body and wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, and laid it in his own new tomb…”
- The Jews asked for and received a guard detail to ensure that no one tampered with the tomb. Matthew 27:62-66
- The Resurrection
a) Resurrection and appearances John 20:1-21:25
1. Resurrection John 20:1-10
o Mary Magdalene and the other women find the tomb empty. v.1-2
- Matthew 28:1-10
· Mary Magdalene and the other women go to the tomb together. v.1
· Mary immediately runs to tell Peter and the other disciples. John 20:2
· It would appear that all the women saw the empty tomb at the same time.
· It seems that Mary immediately ran to tell the disciples and the other women stayed behind at the tomb.
· The other women after seeing the angels run to tell the disciples themselves. On their way they meet the resurrected Christ. Matt. 28:2-10
- The Roman guards are totally overwhelmed with the site of the angelic visitors. Matthew 28:4;11-15
o Peter and John run to the tomb. v.3-10
- John arrives at the tomb first. v.3-5
· John hesitates about going in. v.5b
- Peter arrives and immediately enters the tomb. v.6a
- Peter saw the grave clothes. v.6b
- Peter saw the face cloth neatly rolled up and set to the side. v.7
- John finally enters, sees what Peter has seen and on that basis believes that Jesus has been resurrected. v.8-9
- Peter went to his home and marveled at what had happened. Luke 24:12
2. Appearances John 20:11-21:25
o Mary returns to the tomb alone. v.11-18
- Where it seems the rest of the women had seen two angels and are spoken to by them, Mary sees two angels inside the tomb and is spoken to as well. v.12
· It is not clear that Mary immediately knew that they were angels.
- It appears that the angels address her first. v.13
· It must have been startling to look in the tomb and find two men sitting there.
· The angels ask her a question that they already know the answer to.
· Mary expresses her heart break at not knowing where Jesus body had been taken.
- It is almost as if the angels nod or point and Mary turns and sees a man who she didn’t recognize. v.14
- Jesus addresses her first. v15
- Mary realizes that it is Jesus. v.16-17
· Mary uses the term Rabboni, a strengthened form of the word Rabi, denoting extreme honor and affection.
· Mary is so overcome that she grasps Jesus in such a way that she never wanted to let go again. v.17
· Jesus basically tells Mary to let him go, he hasn’t left yet but would be soon.
· She is sent to tell the disciples that Jesus is alive.
- Mary appears to be the first person to have seen the resurrected Christ. v.18
· Mark 16:9-11 “Now after He had risen early on the first day of the week, He first appeared to Mary Magdalene, from whom He had cast out seven demons…"
o Jesus appears to His disciples John 20:19-31
- His appearance to the ten, Thomas absent. v.19-25
· Jesus offers peace and hope.
· Thomas demands proof. v.24-25
- His appearance to the eleven. v.26-29
· Jesus offers proof to Thomas.
· Likely Thomas only needed to see the resurrected Christ.
- John summarizes his purpose in writing the book. v.30-31
· John mentions that there are “many other signs” that Jesus performed but John did not record them. v.30
· What has been recorded has been written as proof positive that Jesus is who He claimed to be and we can safely believe in the truth of the accounts. v.31