Faithlife Corporation

Back to the Basics: The Word of God Part 1 (2 Tim. 3:14-17)

Notes & Transcripts


We are beginning a new series for the next several weeks called “Back to the Basics: Knowing why you believe what you believe.” I am not sure if you know this, but our church has a faith statement (or a statement of faith.)[1] I think every church should have one. In fact, if you are checking out a church to attend, looking over the faith statement should be one of the first things you should do.

A statement of faith details the church’s core, essential, non-negotiable beliefs. A church cannot be unified unless its members agree on the non-negotiable aspects of its faith. A church cannot have a sense of vision, mission and purpose without this either. This is the foundation, the bedrock for building a church. Jesus says if your foundation is not built on the rock, when it will be tested through wind, rain and flood, it will fall apart (Matt. 7:24-27). And I wonder how many of us have ever read our church’s faith statement? Do you know what the core values are of this church?

Why is this so important? Paul warns the Ephesian elders to guard the flock from “wolves [who will come] speaking twisted things to draw away the disciples after them” (Acts 20:28-30). He tells Timothy to “keep a close watch on yourself and on the teaching. Persist in this, for by so doing you will save both yourself and your hearers” (2 Tim. 4:16). So it is my responsibility as a shepherd to let you know of the walls or hedges of protection God has given us in His Word, explained by the statement of faith, to keep us and enable us to grow as the best flock we can be for the Chief Shepherd. So knowing what you believe is important, but knowing why you believe what you believe is even more important. Everything in our life is built on these truths.

We have included the statement of faith in your bulletin as an insert. This will be the general outline of the series. Obviously we will not going over every single detail and the implications of every numbered point. The style will be more overview than anything else. The goal is to solidify our faith. We want to make sure our foundations are rock solid, so we can allow the Lord to build us up (to use Nehemiah and 1 Peter imagery here). I do want to do some more teaching than usual in this series, but I care a lot more than mere head knowledge, but more heart and hand knowledge, if you know what I mean. We don’t want mere information, but transformation.

This will also be a different type of series. Normally we would just sit in one book for a while, but in this series we will be looking at different Scriptures every week. With that said, let’s look at the first point, which says we believe: “That the Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments, is the inspired and infallible Word of God, the necessary and complete revelation of His will for salvation, and is the ultimate authority for Christian faith and life.” What does that mean?

The logical place to start is with the Word of God. Look at what some, from a variety of different fields of study have said regarding the Bible[2]:

“It is impossible to rightly govern the world without God and the Bible.” President George Washington

“I am sorry for men who do not read the Bible every day. I wonder why they deprive themselves of the strength and pleasure.” President Woodrow Wilson

“Hold fast to the Bible as the sheet anchor of your liberties, write its precepts on your hearts and practice them in your lives.” President Ulysses S. Grant

“If we will not be governed by God, then we will be ruled by tyrants.” William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania

“The more profoundly we study this wonderful book [the Bible], and the more closely we observe its divine precepts, the better citizens we will become and the higher will be our destiny as a nation.” President William McKinley

“Education is useless without the Bible.” Daniel Webster

“A thorough understanding of the Bible is better than a college education.” President Theodore Roosevelt

“That Book (the Bible) is the rock on which our Republic rests.” President Andrew Jackson 

“I have a fundamental belief in the Bible as the Word of God…I study the Bible daily.” Mathematician and Scientist Sir Isaac Newton

“We must not build on the sands of an uncertain and ever changing science…but upon the rock of inspired Scriptures.” Engineer Sir Ambrose Flemming

“England has two books; the Bible and Shakespeare. England made Shakespeare, but the Bible made England.” French writer Victor Hugo 

“No lawyer can afford to be ignorant of the Bible.” Lawyer Rufus Choate 

“Of the many influences that have shaped the United States into a distinctive nation and people, none may be said to be more fundamental and enduring than the Bible.” President Ronald Reagan

"The New Testament is the best book the world has ever known or will know." Author Charles Dickens[3]

Famous theologian, Lil Wayne, while serving a prison sentence last year and reading the Bible there, recently said: "I also read the Bible for the first time. It was deep! I liked the parts where some character was once this, but he ended up being that. Like he'd be dissing Jesus, and then he ends up being a saint. That was cool."[4] I actually appreciate that insight. I pray the same happens to him! I appreciate that comment a lot more than another famous theologian, Kanye West, and his comments on the Bible. West thinks there should be a revised edition of the Bible and wait for it, that he should be a character in it: "I'm an inspirational speaker. I changed the sound of music more than one time... For all those reasons, I'd be a part of the Bible. I'm definitely in the history books already."[5] I could say a lot here about West’s comment, but I don’t want to waste my words.

Nevertheless, there is no way to deny that the Bible through the centuries have affected people whether a president, a scientist or rap star. Why? What is it about this book that people always feel the need to comment on it? Is it just because it is a book that has been part of American culture for so long? Or is there more to it? I want to look at two questions today: Why should I trust the Bible? And why is it important for me? Next time, Lord willing, I want to explore how we got our Bible, what is the message of the Bible and how to get into the Bible. So first of all:

I. Why should I trust the Bible?

Sometimes I hear people say, “The Bible is just another book. It has some good teachings about life, well, except for the visions, miracles and stuff that do not make sense. It’s so outdated. How can a book written 2,000 years ago apply to me today? Besides, we have so many copies and translations. How do we know things haven’t changed over time? Is there real evidence for the uniqueness and reliability of the Bible?” Well, there is evidence! I am going to share three major reasons, but spend a little more time uncovering the first than the other two.

Take note of this:

a) The Manuscript Evidence

When I say manuscript, I mean the ancient documents on which the Word of God was originally written and copied. Now we do not have the original manuscripts of the Bible. In other words, we do not have the actual document that John, Moses or Luke actually wrote on. All we have are copies of the original manuscripts. Nevertheless, a good way to see if an ancient document is credible is to look at the number of copies available in one’s possession. The more copies we have, the “better we can compare between them and thus know if the document we now read corresponds with the original. It is much like a witness to an event. If we have only one witness to the event, there is the possibility that the witness's agenda or even an exaggeration of the event has crept in and we would never know the full truth. But if we have many witnesses, the probability that they all got it wrong becomes minute.”[6]

For example, did you know that Homer’s (not Simpson) Illiad written around the eighth century BC, has about 643 manuscripts and all of them are partial.[7] It is the second most commonly copied document, second only to the Bible. By the way, “only 5 copies of Aristotle's writings have found their way to the 20th century, while only 10 copies of the writings of Caesar, along with another 20 copies of the historian Tacitus, and 7 copies from the historian Pliny, who all originally wrote in the first century, are available today.”[8]

How many manuscripts do you think there are of the Bible? 800? 1,000? 2,000? How about 24,000 ? There are now more than 5,600 ancient manuscripts of the Greek New Testament. Add that to 10,000 more Latin manuscripts and 9,300 other early versions. That adds up to about nearly 25,000 early manuscripts of the Bible. No other ancient document even comes close.[9] Now if you went to a college professor and questioned him/her about having a reliable version of Homer’s Iliad, he/she would probably laugh at you. “We have over 600 manuscripts,” will be the response. If 643 manuscripts are enough to establish an ancient text, what about 24,000? Yet, the Bible is attacked all the time for lack of evidence. This tells me the issue is not evidence, but unbelief!

Consider also the time gap. As I mentioned earlier, Homer’s IIliad was written ~800 BC, but the earliest manuscript is around 400 BC, a time gap of 400 years.[10] Now compare that to the New Testament, “which was completed by a.d. 95. Our earliest New Testament manuscript—a fragment from the Gospel of John—dates from a.d. 125, a span of only thirty years! That’s all. The Bible has an advantage of 370 years in the time between its writing and the first existing copies.”[11]

Earlier I mentioned that the manuscripts were copied. A scribe would copy it all by hand meticulously and even have a proofreader to check it against the master copy. They even counted the words and letters to make sure nothing was lost. It would take hours to copy just a single page. If they made one mistake, they had to tear up the whole page and start over.[12] Nevertheless, the scribes were human, so inadvertent mistakes would occur in punctuation, spelling or misplaced words. But amazingly, “less than 1 percent of the words in the New Testament are seriously debated, and none of these affects any doctrine of the faith.”[13]

What about the Old Testament? The Old Testament was completed around 400 BC, but the earliest manuscript we had at one time was dated 900 AD. So while the gap for the New Testament manuscripts is 30 years, the gap for the Old Testament was 1,300 years. As a result, many questioned the authority of the Old Testament until 1947.

A shepherd boy was looking for a goat when he ended up at a cave, seven and one-half miles south of Jericho and a mile west of the Dead Sea. He found some jars containing several leather scrolls. Archaeologists over the next several years would pull out 100,000 fragments that were pieced back together into about 800 ancient documents. These came to be known as the Dead Sea Scrolls.[14] As they analyzed these scrolls, by carbon dating, it showed that most of them were written between 100 BC and 68 AD.[15]

All of these were Old Testament Scriptures. In fact, a complete copy of Isaiah was found, which turned out to be written 1,000 years earlier than the most available copy. So you can be sure that scholars were eager to compare the two versions. For example, they took Isaiah 53 of the Dead Scrolls and compared it. Here is what they found:

Of the 166 words in Isaiah 53, there are only seventeen letters in question. Ten of these letters are simply a matter of spelling, which does not affect the sense. Four more letters are minor stylistic changes, such as conjunctions. The remaining three letters comprise the word “light,” which is added in verse 11, and does not affect the meaning greatly. Furthermore, this word is supported by the LXX [Septuagint]. … Thus, in one chapter of 166 words, there is only one word (three letters) in question after a thousand years of transmission—and this word does not significantly change the meaning of the passage.[16]

The manuscript evidence is overwhelming. Now I did not even get into the archaeological evidence for the Bible. You can check that out as well if you are curious. The point is that God has preserved His Word. It has withstood the test of time and the attack of man. No one is going to get rid of it, or any time soon. We read this in 1 Peter 1:24: “All flesh is like grass and all its glory like the flower of grass. The grass withers, and the flower fails, but the word of the Lord remains forever” (1:24-25). The French writer Voltaire once said in the 1700s that in 100 years, the only place you would find a Bible would be in a museum and that Christianity would be swept away from existence and pass into the obscurity of history.

Ironically, within fifty years of Voltaire’s death in 1778, the Geneva Bible Society would end up purchasing his house and used his own printing press to print Bibles![17] God has a sense of humor doesn’t He? Voltaire, was a flower that was here today and gone the next, but the Word of God endures forever.

In fact, also consider the sheer number of Bibles being printed. According to the United Bible Society, the Bible is now translated into 459 languages as of 2010[18] and they distributed over 29 million Bibles in 2009.[19] Gideon’s International records that they have distributed “approximately 1.6 billion Bibles and New Testaments have been distributed worldwide since 1908, and more than 700 million Bibles and New Testaments were distributed in just the last 10 years. 79.8 million copies of God's Word were distributed last year. On average, more than two copies of God's Word are distributed per second. Over one million Bibles and New Testaments are distributed every 4.5 days.”[20] Enough said. The Bible is not going to be extinguished any time soon. You can trust the historical reliability of the Bible!

b) The Internal Evidence

The Bible was written by over 40 different authors in a span of 1500 years. They came from a variety of backgrounds, from shepherds, kings, tax collectors, prophets, fishermen, doctors and political leaders. The Bible was written on three different continents: Asia, Africa and Europe.  It was written in three different languages: Hebrew (Old Testament), Aramaic (portions of Daniel), and Greek (New Testament). Today it is hard for three people to agree on one story they heard on the news. But if you really take time to study the Bible, you will find amazing consistency within its pages. The only explanation is that it is supernatural. There is no way all of these people from all walks of life could possibly all agree so amazingly. One author put it, “…as we read this book we see one unfolding story of God’s love for man and His plan to redeem man back from this dead spiritual condition…The ‘Paradise Lost’ of Genesis becomes the ‘Paradise regained’ of Revelation.  Whereas the gate to the tree of life is closed in Genesis, it is opened forevermore in Revelation.”[21]

Now in the church of Jesus Christ, we may find so many varying interpretations of various portions of Scripture here and there. But in all mainline denominations, you will find much more agreement on the essentials than disagreement. And the people who claim there are blatant contradictions 99% of the time cannot show one. I will not take time to go over the common contradictions here, but in all my study of the Word, though it is probably only 15 years, I have yet to find any supposed ones that could not be explained.

c) The Evidence of Fulfilled Prophecy

Pastor James Macdonald notes, “There are sixty-one major prophecies concerning the life of Jesus Christ, written many hundreds of years before His birth. Even unbelieving scientists applying the measurement of statistical probability tell us that the chances of just eight of those prophecies being fulfilled is one in 1017 (one hundred thousand trillion).”[22] That is an incredible statistic!

I hope all of this external and internal evidence encourages and stirs your soul. But I believe the question, as I think was emphasized from even our Friday Night discussions, is that the issue is never is there any evidence? But even I receive evidence to my satisfaction, will I still believe? God wrote a book. Not only did He write it, but He preserves it from generation to generation. I love the fact that He wrote His Word in a book. By doing so, we can repeatedly study and inspect it. We can reproduce it and give it to more people than simply if people just knew it by memory.

Now I don’t want to simply throw some facts at you, but I want us to end by looking at this next question:

II. Why is the Bible important for me?

So if the Bible is a supernatural book, what does that mean for my life?  What’s the purpose of the Bible for us? Let’s look at one text here to answer that, found in 2 Timothy 3:14-17. Paul writes this letter from prison in Rome, where he will soon die. He writes this personal letter to his disciple and dear friend and coworker, Timothy, a pastor. He wants Timothy to remain faithful under any pressure that might be thrown at him, especially from false teachers trying to deceive his flock. Paul urges him to follow Paul as Paul did the Lord and to not waver looking at the enemies of the gospel around him.

In 2 Timothy 3:14, Paul tells him to “continue in what you have learned.” Our faith is always proved by our endurance. Why should he endure? Paul gives him two reasons. First of all, “knowing from whom you learned it.” In other words, compare the contents of the teaching to the character of those who taught it. Note the consistency. The Word has transformed them, so no reason to doubt it now. By the way, the best way to help people continue in the faith whether it is your children or anyone else is for them to watch you live it out day after day. Secondly, you can continue in the faith Timothy, because you have known the Word all your life and you can never outgrow it. Since he was young, his mother Eunice and his grandmother Lois taught him the Old Testament Scriptures (2 Tim. 1:5). Jewish parents normally began instructing children in the Scriptures from their fifth year.[23] Look at 2 Tim. 3:15. In Timothy’s life, the Apostle Paul would come along as well as others and showed him how how the Old Testament pointed to Jesus Christ. So what did Timothy learn about God’s purpose for the Bible in his life? Jot this down:

a)    The Word of God points us to the Son of God (v.15)

If anything, the Bible is important because it shows us how to get to Heaven; how to be saved (note this mentioned in the statement of faith). Believing the Bible will not save us. Satan believes the Bible and he is not saved. So the Bible does not save us, but shows us how to be saved. It is God’s love letter for you. It is a mirror, as I mentioned a couple of weeks ago, to show us how lost and dirty we are, causing us to run to Christ for salvation. When God was working in my heart at the age of 17, He first got me into His Word. I remember buying a third grade Bible (filled with pictures) and that summer, I read from Genesis to Job in a week. Later that summer, God would use that time in His Word to bring me to THE Word, Jesus Christ (John 1:1) for my salvation. We will talk next week about how the whole Bible is about Jesus Christ, but take note here that faith in Christ comes first by hearing, and hearing by the Word of God (Rom. 10:17). The Word of God brings us to the Son of God.

b)    The Word of God is inspired from the mind and mouth of God (v.16a)

Paul continues to say, “All Scripture is breathed out by God.” One commentator notes that this verse reads literally to say, “’All Scripture is breathed into by God.’ When you speak, your word is “you-breathed”—your breath, conditioned by your mind, pours forth in speech. You breathe out your words.”[24] The Scriptures are God-breathed.

You might say, “Does that mean Matthew, Moses, David, Peter and others did not have a say at all?” This is where the word inspiration comes in. Be careful though. This can be misleading.  Let’s talk briefly about what biblical inspiration is not. First of all, inspiration does not mean a high level of human achievement.  We must not think the Bible is inspired like how people say, “Shakespeare was an inspired writer.” The Bible is not just the product of genius writing. Secondly, inspiration does not mean God passed on the concepts. For instance God did not say, “Paul, go talk about love.” And Paul sits down and writes 1 Cor. 13. Thirdly, inspiration does not mean robotic dictation. 2 Pet. 1:21 tells us that the human authors of Scripture were not mere robots dictating from God, but that God used their personality, their style of writing, their cultural background to communicate His Word to us. Pastor and author John Macarthur defines inspiration as “the act of the Holy Spirit in revealing to human writers God’s message that makes up the content of the Old and New Testaments.”[25]

Macarthur clarifies this when he answers the question, “But how can the Bible be the Word of God and at the same time, for example, the words of Paul? God formed the personality of the writer. God made Paul into the man He wanted him to be. God controlled his heredity and his environment. When the writer reached the point that God intended, He directed and controlled the free choice of the man so that he wrote down the very words of God. God literally selected the words out of each author’s own life, out of his personality, his vocabulary, and his emotions. The words were man’s words, but that man’s life had been so framed by God that they were God’s words as well. So we can say that Paul wrote Romans, and we can say God wrote it. Both statements are correct.”[26] This does not mean the authors were inspired. The particular writings that God wanted in the Bible were. If Paul, the author, was inspired, then his grocery list for any certain day would be God’s Word as well. Inspiration, however, is limited to the writings themselves that God wanted in His book.

How much of the Scripture is inspired then? Notice Paul says, “all,” which means “each and every Scripture.” He was directly talking about the Old Testament since it was complete then. However, we see that early on in the church, the apostles recognized that their letters were also Scripture. Look at 2 Pet. 3:16. Peter says Paul’s writings are Scripture. Turn back to 1 Tim. 5:17-18. Paul says, “The Scripture says” and then he quotes first from Deut. 25:4 and then from Luke 10:7, which implies that Paul saw Luke’s Gospel as Scripture when he was writing 1 Timothy.

I want to share some results that should happen because the Bible is inspired. First of all, this means the Bible is authoritative. Wayne Grudem in his Systematic Theology explains, “The authority of Scripture means that all the words in Scripture are God’s words in such a way that to disbelieve or disobey any word of Scripture is to disbelieve or disobey God.” [27]  So we can see what we believe about God by the way we treat His Word. I no longer live for the way I want or please, because my life has to be in line with the authority of God’s Word.

Secondly, because the Bible is from God and inspired by Him, it is infallible. This means since God is true, then whatever He speaks must also true. You can bank on it for your life. It will not lead you to go astray. Thirdly, we must also believe it is inerrant. A lot can be said about this aspect as well, but for our purposes here, we mean that in the original manuscripts, which are called “autographs,” there are no mistakes. As I mentioned earlier, though we do not have the autographs, it does not mean we cannot know what it said. Studying all of the manuscripts allows us to put together over 99.5% of the actual original manuscripts (and the remaining .5% of discrepancies are differences in punctuation, spelling and can be explained by the context of the passage). So for our practical purposes, the current earliest manuscripts are the same as the original. We know the copies have these small mistakes in them and thus those mistakes are the mistakes of men, but the original must be without mistake, because as Grudem explains, “if we have mistakes in the original manuscripts then we are forced to say not only that men made mistakes, but that God himself made a mistake and spoke falsely. This we cannot do.”[28] Lastly,

c)    The Word of God is sufficient to live for and do the work of God (vv.16b-17)

Sometimes people will say, “The Bible has all the answers you need.” This needs to be clarified. Obviously the Bible does not have answers for how to fix your car or how to bake a cake. When we say the Bible is sufficient, we mean that the Bible has all the words from God needed for salvation and how to trust and obey God in every aspect of life. Notice in the verses in 2 Timothy.

Each of these words show us how “profitable” the Word is for us. Warren Wiersbe explains that the Word, “… is profitable for doctrine (what is right), for reproof (what is not right), for correction (how to get right), and for instruction in righteousness (how to stay right).”[29] That pretty much sums up how sufficient it is for every aspect of our lives!

Why does God want us the Word to profit us in this way? In 2 Tim. 3:17 it tells us that the Word of God does all these things to get us to do the work of God. Grudem says, “If there is any ‘good work’ that God wants a Christian to do, this passage indicates that God has made provision in his Word for training the Christian in it. Thus, there is no ‘good work’ that God wants us to do other than those that are taught somewhere in Scripture: it can equip us for every good work.”[30]

One commentator observes that the word “competent” here means “in fit shape or condition.” The participial phrase described him as furnished completely to do whatever God called him to perform. The use of the Greek perfect tense for “equipped” suggests that this is an abiding condition. If Timothy would nurture his spiritual life in the Scriptures that he would use in his ministry, he would be fully qualified and prepared to undertake whatever tasks God put before him. [31] In other words, there is no reason to be unprepared for any task God has set before us because God, through His Word, has adequately supplied all that you need to accomplish that task!

The sufficiency of Scripture then would also imply that we do not need to consider any other writings as equal value to Scripture. God says in Rev. 22:18-19 that the Scriptures are complete. There is nothing else about Him or His plan for mankind that He requires us to believe, that is not already found in Scripture. He will not add to His Word again, until the Word will be revealed in the return of Jesus Christ.


The film The Book of Eli is about a future world in which the human race finds itself in a place without the things that it formerly took for granted, like water. In one scene, Eli, played by Denzel Washington, explains this to a young woman named Solara. Solara asks, “What was it like in the world before?” Eli replies, “People had more than they needed. We had no idea of what was precious, what wasn’t.”[32] I don’t want to spoil it in case you haven’t seen it, but I was convicted by how precious the last Bible was to Eli as well as how much it was a part of who he was.

I wonder today, would God say that about you and me with our overabundance of Bibles that we never care to open? Do we have any idea how precious this Word is that God has given to us? Is the Word precious to you? Some of us remembered to bring our phone to church, but not God’s Word (unless the Word is in the phone). If the Bible was taken away from our lives, would our lives be any different today? Do we see that neglecting and ignoring God’s Word in our lives is neglecting and ignoring God? Loved ones, we can trust the Word and bank on it with our lives. God has spoken to us and it is all in His Word. I am thankful that we have a God who has not left us in the dark about who He is and how He wants us to live and serve Him. His Word is sufficient today for wherever you are in life. Get in it. Eat it up. May you find it to be like hidden treasure and honey for your starved soul.



[1]Found at

[2]Taken from accessed 27 January 2011.

[3]Taken from “Quotes about the Bible from Famous People,”  accessed 27 January 2011.

[4]Taken from “Echo Chamber: Lil Wayne on the Bible,”  accessed 27 January 2011.

[5]Taken from “Kanye West-Cocky West: ‘I Should Be in the Bible,”  accessed 27 January 2011. 

[6]Smith, Jay. “The Bible’s Manuscript Evidence,”  accessed 27 January 2011. 

[7]Macdonald, James (2002). God Wrote a Book (14). Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway Books. Citing Josh McDowell, /The New Evidence That Demands a Verdict (Nashville: Nelson, 1999), 34.  

[8]Smith, Jay.   

[9]Ibid (18).

[10]Macdonald, (20). 


[12]Ibid. (21).

[13]Ibid. (19).

[14]Geisler, N. L., & Nix, W. E. (1996). A General Introduction to the Bible (Rev. and expanded.) (361). Chicago: Moody Press.

[15]“Differing Views,” accessed 27 January 2011.

[16]Ibid. citing Geisler and Nix.

[17]MacDonald, J. (17).

[18]Taken from  accessed January 27, 2011.

[19]Taken from accessed January 27, 2011.

[20]Taken from accessed January  27, 2011.

[21]“Differing Views,” Ibid.

[22]MacDonald, J. (34).

[23]Lea, T. D., & Griffin, H. P. (2001). Vol. 34: 1, 2 Timothy, Titus (electronic ed.). Logos Library System; The New American Commentary (233). Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers.

[24]Hughes, R. K., & Chapell, B. (2000). 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus : To Guard the Deposit. Preaching the Word (238). Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway Books.

[25]MacArthur, J. (2003). Unleashing God's Word in Your Life (7). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, Inc.

[26]MacArthur, J. (11).

[27]Grudem, W. A. (1994). Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine (73). Leicester, England; Grand Rapids, Mich.: Inter-Varsity Press; Zondervan Pub. House.

[28]Grudem, W. A. (97).

[29]Wiersbe, W. W. (1996). The Bible Exposition Commentary (2 Ti 3:13). Wheaton, Ill.:  Victor Books.

[30]Grudem, W. A. (127-128)

[31]Lea, T. D., & Griffin, H. P. (237-238).

[32]Pennoyer, Ray. “Denzel Washington, Martin Luther and our Strange Neglect of the Bible,”  accessed 13 January 2011.

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