Back to the Basics: God IS Part 1 (On the existence of God and the Trinity)
We have been working our way through this series called Back to the Basics. In this series, we are going over why we believe what we believe as outlined in our church’s statement of faith. We looked at the first point regarding the Word of God. The second point reads like this:
We believe in the one true and living God, eternally existing in three distinct persons: Father, Son and Holy Spirit. That the triune God is the Creator, the Sustainer, and Ruler of all Creation, but it is prior to, and distinct from the Creation.
I am going to limit this message and the next message to deal with just those things about God. Obviously with all of these topics, you can do years worth of messages with each, but for our purposes, we are going to study, with the Lord’s help, just the truths listed here.
Late pastor and author A.W. Tozer once said, “What comes into our minds when we think about God is the most important thing about us…Worship is pure or base as the worshiper entertains high or low thoughts of God. For this reason the gravest question before the Church is always God Himself, and the most [important] fact about any man is not what he at a given time may say or do, but what he in his deep heart conceives God to be like...Always the most revealing thing about the Church is her idea of God.” So if that’s true, it is vital that we have the right view of who our God is that we worship. You become what you worship, so having a correct view of God is important in how we view ourselves since we are made in the image of God (Gen. 1:26).
Your view of God will affect the way you see yourself and ultimately the way you see others. Even as Christians, our view of God can be distorted by our sin. So if you view God as an angry nit-picky tyrant who is always disappointed in you, you will see yourselves as constant failures, perfectionistic perhaps and living with constant guilt. You might even be tough on others when they don’t live up to your expectations. If you view God as an indifferent, lovey-dovey God, you will perhaps not take sin seriously and take advantage of grace without considering the cost or consequences. You may freely allow sin in others lives as well, since you do it for yours. Now if you don’t believe in God, there is no moral being against whom they have sinned and therefore they have no need of salvation. As Dostoevsky once said, “If God does not exist, then everything is permitted.” Sadly, the Bible would call you a fool (Ps. 14:1; Ps. 53:1). April Fool’s Day should also be called “National Atheist’s Day!”
So today we want to look at the existence of God and the Trinity and some practical responses as a result. On that note, let’s start with this first thought:
I. God IS: The Existence of God
There are several traditional arguments or “proofs” for the existence of God. I am not planning a debate here or even going to come close to explain all of these arguments in detail. I would encourage you if you are curious to dig deeper on your own. I am merely going to explain the traditional viewpoints that believers (and sometimes non-believers) have provide over time that are attempts to show that it is not irrational to believe in the existence of God. We must also remember that the Bible never seeks to prove the existence of God. In fact, it begins with “In the beginning, God…” (Gen. 1:1). The Bible assumes God’s existence from the get go. But here are the top three classical arguments for the existence of God:
a) The Argument from Creation
This is also called the cosmological argument and basically states, “…since there is a universe, it must have been caused by something beyond itself.” Everything in the universe that has a beginning was caused by something else. This is called the law of causality or cause and effect. This is what science does. It searches for what caused what. So to illustrate, “when a man is driving down the street, a car never appears in front of his car out of nowhere, with no driver or no cause. We know many a police officer has heard this, but it’s just not true. There’s always a driver or some other cause behind that car appearing.” If you don’t believe in the law of causality, I would have to ask you, “What caused you to come to that conclusion?” So to break it down:
1. The universe had a beginning.
2. Anything that has a beginning must have been caused by something else.
3. Therefore, the universe was caused by something else, and this cause was God.
If you noticed, this argument assumes premise 1. So you will have to dig deeper to see if the fact that the universe had a beginning is true or not. I will not take time to do that here, but to simply tell you this is the logic behind it.
b) The Argument from Design
This is a subcategory of the first argument and is also called the teleological argument. This argument “focuses on the evidence of harmony, order, and design in the universe, and argues that its design gives evidence of an intelligent purpose.” To break it down, it sounds like this:
1. All designs imply a designer.
2. There is great design in the universe.
3. Therefore, there must be a Great Designer of the universe.
Apologist and author Norman Geisler observes our experience when he says, “Anytime we see a complex design, we know by previous experience that it came from the mind of a designer. Watches imply watchmakers; buildings imply architects; paintings imply artists; and coded messages imply an intelligent sender.” He adds, “the greater the design, the greater the designer. Beavers make log dams, but they have never constructed anything like Hoover Dam. Likewise, a thousand monkeys sitting at typewriters would never write Hamlet. But Shakespeare did it on the first try. The more complex the design, the greater the intelligence required to produce it…A single DNA molecule, the building block of all life, carries the same amount of information as one volume of an encyclopedia. No one seeing an encyclopedia lying in the forest would hesitate to think that it had an intelligent cause; so when we find a living creature composed of millions of DNA-based cells, we ought to assume that it likewise has an intelligent cause.”
c) The Argument from Morality
This argument stems out of “…man’s sense of right and wrong, and of the need for justice to be done, and argues that there must be a God who is the source of right and wrong and who will someday mete out justice to all people.” Because we have a conscience and sense of morality, there must be a moral lawgiver. Again, to break it down:
1. All men are conscious of an objective moral law.
2. Moral laws imply a moral Lawgiver.
3. Therefore, there must be a supreme moral Lawgiver.
There is overwhelming data from sociologists that in basic morality about murder, stealing, lying, etc. in humans are for the most part very similar. Some have argued that morality is an evolutionary phenomenon and there is no need to argue that it comes from God. However, if evolution is all about the “survival of the fittest,” that people who are best and strongest and most “fit” will always survive, why do human beings care for the aged, help the sick, create, fund and advance hospitals and medical research? And why do we have a sense of guilt that we feel when we do otherwise?
There are other arguments, like the ontological argument or argument from being, but I will not go into here. I share these three with you to whet your appetite about this topic. Please go and research this for yourself. I also realize that in the end, just like with the Biblical evidence, it comes down not to a lack of evidence, but unbelief. Most of the time, unbelievers don’t want to believe, since it has huge implications for their lives if it is true. God must open our eyes, since sin has caused us to think irrationally and as Paul says to “suppress the truth” (Rom. 1:18). Let’s look secondly at this:
II. God is THREE IN ONE: The Trinity
If you look again at the faith statement, the word “triune God” is mentioned as well as, “eternally existing in three distinct persons.” Now we will discuss the Trinity. “The doctrine of the Trinity is one of the most important doctrines of the Christian faith,” writes theologian Wayne Grudem. Yes, one of the most important, yet one of, if not the mysterious doctrines of the Christian faith.
The story is told of church father Augustine who was once walking by the seashore pondering the doctrine of the Trinity. He came upon a little boy who was dipping water from the ocean with a shell and pouring the water into a hole in the sand. “What are you doing?” Augustine asked the child. “I’m going to put the ocean in this hole,” the boy replied. Augustine went his way. But, he confided to his friends later that he was struck with this thought: “And art thou doing the like in thinking to comprehend the depths of God in the limits of thy finite mind?” [Then he said], If you try to understand the Trinity, you will lose your mind. But if you deny the Trinity, you will lose your soul.” He would spend 19 years studying it and wrote 15 volumes on it. So in my feeble attempt here to discuss this in a few minutes is obviously not even going to scratch the surface of this glorious and mysterious truth.
I don’t want to lose my mind or my soul in this section here, but hopefully we can, with the Lord’s help, gain a better understanding and appreciation for this doctrine. In the end, my goal here is not just to help us understand the trinity, but to look at what practical applications we can make as result of our belief in the Trinity. So I hope to end with that. By the way, the word “trinity,” which means “tri-unity” or “three-in-oneness” is not found in the Bible, but don’t let that worry you, since neither are “Bible” or “omnipresence” (God is everywhere). Just because we created a word to understand something that is not actually in the Bible, does not mean the Bible does not teach it. Like the existence of God, the Bible does not seek to prove the Trinity, it just assumes it and describes it. If you notice on the screen, one of the common symbols of the Trinity is the triquetra, which means “three-cornered.”
In the Old Testament, we have partial revelation regarding the Trinity. For example, Gen. 1:26: God said, “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness.” Gen. 3:22, after the Fall of man, God says, “Behold, the man has become like one of us.” Isaiah 6:8: “Whom shall I send, and who will go for us?” (note the combination of singular and plural in the same sentence). There are several other examples we could look at, but will not due to the sake of time. So what do we mean when we say The Trinity? Basically we mean:
1. God is three persons.
2. Each person is fully God.
3. There is one God.
Every heresy and false teaching comes from denying (usually while overemphasizing one over the other) one or more of these statements. Paul Copan explains, “The orthodox doctrine of the Trinity emphasizes that only one God exists (oneness). This God exists eternally in three distinct persons—Father, Son, and Spirit (threeness). Also, these persons are fully equal in their essential divine attributes and perfections (equality).”
The threeness aspect relates to persons, and oneness pertains to nature or essence. There is only one divine nature, but three persons share in it. The Trinity says that there are three persons, yet one divine nature, i.e. one divine nature and three persons who possess that one divine nature. For our understanding, let me take the three points above backwards and go a little deeper. First of all
a) There is one God
God is only one being. There are not three Gods, i.e. tritheism. There is abundant Scriptural evidence from beginning to end that teach this. Deut. 6:4-5: “Hear o Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one.” This is called the Shema and the Jews would recite this twice a day. Also, the first commandment says, “You shall have no other gods before me” (Ex. 20:3). Solomon prays, “that all the peoples of the earth may know that the Lord is God; there is no other” (1 Kings 8:60). Isaiah 45:5: “I am the LORD, and there is no other, besides me there is no God.” Look at the New Testament. Jesus Himself says, “And this is eternal life, that they know you the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent” (John 17:3). Paul writes, “There is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus” (1 Tim. 2:5). And again, “there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist” (1 Cor. 8:6). James also affirms this (Jam. 2:19).
Mormons, for example, believe Jesus Christ was a man who became God (notice how they twisted the Incarnation where God became man) and all good Mormons can become gods of their own universes like God is now. This is polytheism and a denial that there is one God. But they won’t tell you that when they show up at your door! Mormons deny the oneness of God and overemphasize the threeness of God. Also, look at 1 John 2:23: “No one who denies the Son has the Father. Whoever confesses the Son has the Father also.” This verse teaches us that anybody who says they have or pray to God the Father, but denies Jesus as Christ, DO NOT have God as their Father. Billions of people are praying to God and call Him by different names, but according to the Word, there is only only God and if it is not the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, it is not God that they are praying to. Charles Ryrie notes, “God is single and unique, demanding the exclusion of all pretended rivals and removing any hint of tritheism.”
b) Each person is fully God
Obviously God the Father is clearly God. But does the Bible teach that Jesus Christ is God? John 1:1. John echoes the opening words of Genesis when he writes, “In the beginning…” In other words, the same God who created the world is the same one who is called the Word, i.e. Jesus Christ. Interestingly, Jehovah Witnesses, in their New World Translation, deny that Jesus is God, conveniently adding the article, a to God in that verse to read: “And the Word was a god” instead of “the Word was God.” However, in other instances where God is mentioned, even in the same chapter, they do not use the article! For example, in John 1:6: “there was a man sent from God.” The JW’s also believe the Holy Spirit is just a force and not God.
Look at John 20:28. When Thomas touched Jesus’ hand and side, he exclaimed, “My Lord and my God!” (John 20:28). A couple more verses here: Heb. 1:8: “But of the Son, he says, “your throne O God is forever and ever…” And Titus 2:13 refers to “our great God and Savior Jesus Christ.” Jesus is God. By the way, mainline Christians do not consider Mormons or Jehovah Witnesses as part of mainline Christianity. Since they have deviated from the essential core beliefs of our faith, they are considered cults. So in overemphasizing the oneness of God, the Jehovah Witnesses have missed the threeness of God.
Moreover, the Holy Spirit is God. In Acts 5:3-4, when Ananias lied about how much money he gave, Peter says he actually lied to the Holy Spirit and adds, “you have not lied to men but to God.” 1 Cor. 3:16, Paul asks, “Do you not know you are God’s temple and that God’s Spirit dwells in you?” God’s temple is where God’s presence dwells, apparently equating, then, God’s Spirit with God himself. David asks in Ps. 139:7-8, “Where shall I go from your Spirit? Where shall I flee from your presence? If I ascend to heaven you are there!” David says to go from God’s presence is to go from God’s Spirit. So the Spirit is omnipresent. Paul says in 1 Cor. 2:11 that the Spirit searches everything, so the Spirit is omniscient (all-knowing).
By the way, the Holy Spirit is not an “it.” He is not “the Force” or a ghost or a weird energy. The Holy Spirit is God, so the Holy Spirit is a person. Eph. 4:30 tells us not to grieve the Holy Spirit. Sin pushes the Holy Spirit into a corner and hurts Him. He can be hurt because He is a person. He is God. Furthermore, Scripture says, the Holy Spirit can: communicate (Acts 13:2), intercede (Rom. 8:26), testify (John 15;26), guide (John 16:13), command (Acts 16:6-7), appoint (Acts 20:28), lead (Rom. 8:14), convict of sin (John 16:8), seal God's promise in believers' hearts (Eph. 1:13-14), and shape the life of each person and community to Christ's (Rom. 8:1-17), to name a few.
So we said there is one God and each person is fully God. Lastly,
c) God is three persons
This is the difficult part to explain and makes the Trinity hard to grasp. While Scripture affirms that God is One and that God the Father is God, Jesus is God and the Holy Spirit is God, it also teaches that they are three distinct persons. As Grudem attests, “the persons of the Trinity have different primary functions in relating to the world.” These three persons share the same divine nature yet are different in role and relationships. The Father planned redemption and sent the Son who accomplishes it for us. The Father and Son send the Spirit to live in us. We don’t say God the Father was a Galilean carpenter or God the Father walked away from the tomb. We don’t ever say the Holy Spirit died for us, or even the Father suffered for our sins (or we shouldn’t). We say Jesus died for our sins, bringing us to God and giving us the Holy Spirit to live life as we wait for His return. This is a helpful diagram that illustrates this from the ESV Study Bible.
Nevertheless, the mystery is how each member of the Godhead is equally present in each and every divine action.
Copan adds, “God’s threeness is also apparent. In the Great Commission (Matt 28:18–20), Jesus tells His disciples to go and make disciples of all nations, “baptizing them in the name [not names] of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit.” At Jesus’ baptism, a reenactment of the exodus, Father and Spirit are also present (Matt 3:16–17). Paul’s benediction expresses God’s threeness: “May the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all” (2 Cor. 13:14 NIV; cf. 1 Cor. 12:4–6).” Let me share here two false teachings, i.e. two dangers to avoid, as a result of failing to understand the threeness of God.
d) Two dangers to avoid
Partialism teaches that God the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are each components of God — that is, they are each parts of a whole. This led them to believe that each of the persons of the Trinity is only part God, only becoming fully God when they come together. People who use the parts of the egg (or parts of a tree or 3 leaf clover) to explain the Trinity are actually teaching partialism. In this teaching, God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are like an egg: the shell, white, and yolk of an egg are separate, but are parts of the same whole. But God is not divided into three parts like an egg. None of the three parts can be said to the whole thing at the same time.
Modalism teaches that there is one person who appears in three different forms or “modes.” People who teach this now use the water analogy. They say the Trinity is like he three forms of water (steam, water and ice). So God is sometimes solid, sometimes liquid and sometimes vapor or gas. In this teaching, God seems to put on a mask and play a different role at different times. So in the Old Testament, He is “Father.” When Jesus came, He is the “Son,” and from Acts onward, He is “the Spirit.” He is always playing one role at any one time. The early church strongly condemned this teaching. Well the problem with this is texts like Matthew 3, at the baptism of Jesus. The Father speaks, the Son comes out of the water and the Spirit descends. You can’t play three roles at the same time. There are three Persons, not three roles being played. The United Pentecostal Church actually teach this, so be careful if you visit them. Grudem explains the error of the water imagery when he says, “a) no quantity of water is ever all three of these at the same time, (b) they have different properties or characteristics, (c) the analogy has nothing that corresponds to the fact that there is only one God (there is no such thing as “one water” or “all the water in the universe”), and (d) the element of intelligent personality is lacking.”
Another analogy, which happens to be another form of modalism, is that drawn from human experience. In this analogy, a person can be a father, son and husband, yet one man. Yet this falls short because that person is doing three activities at different times, not all at the same time. Has this man always been a father? Always a husband?
So are there any adequate analogies to describe the Trinity? No, the Trinity is like the Trinity! I would encourage you to avoid trying to find an analogy for the Trinity. I even saw an analogy taken from Greek and Roman mythology of a three-headed dog, named Cerberus, who guarded the door to hell. There are problems with this analogy as well.  So I have concluded there is nothing exactly like the Trinity in the entire universe!
Copan correctly agrees when he writes, “Christians have long pondered the mystery of the Trinity, and we’re not here trying to demystify the God whose nature and purposes can’t be reduced to tidy formulas or manageable boxes. We should celebrate the unfathomable God, who’s under no obligation to human demands to clarify everything about Himself (Deut. 29:29). And why think our puny minds could grasp these “secret things” (NASB) anyway? Paul reminds us that we know partially and lack the clarity about God’s nature and ways (1 Cor. 13:9; cf. Isa 55:9). “The great things of the gospel” (as theologian Jonathan Edwards put it) are astonishing, but mystery or partial knowledge doesn’t imply contradiction.”
Let’s conclude with some practical observations:
e) The relevance of the Trinity
Some may wonder why we make a big deal about this. As I quoted Augustine earlier, denying the Trinity could lead to losing your soul. Why? First of all, without the Trinity, we have no salvation. If Jesus is merely a created being, it is hard to see how He could bear the full wrath of God against all of our sins. Grudem asks, “Could any creature, no matter how great, really save us?” Also, it would be idolatry to worship Christ if He is merely a created being. We would also have to question God’s character. Relationship is only a relationship if one has someone other than oneself to relate to. So if there is no Trinity, God was relational only at creation. So God cannot be relational without us in this thinking. But Scripture is clear when it says, “God who made the world and everything in it, being Lord of heaven and earth, does not live in temples made by hands, nor is served by hands, as though He needed anything, since He himself gives to all mankind life and breath and everything” (Acts 17:24-25). God is relational and has had relationship within Himself eternally.
Secondly, we have an ultimate model for relationships in the body of Christ. The Trinity shows us God is a relational and personal being within Himself. If we are created in His image, this means we are deeply relational beings. How is the Trinity a model of relationships? Well, we can have unity and diversity at the same time. The heart of the Trinity says there is unity and distinction co-existing at the same time. So male and female can come together in marriage and be one, though distinct. Different people with different backgrounds and races and gifting can be unified in Christ and yet distinct, one body with many members, as Paul says (1 Cor. 12:12). The doctrine of the Trinity calls us away from racism and ethnocentrism and slavery. Copan observes, “The necessary unity of Father, Son, and Spirit is like the angles of a triangle. If we remove one angle, we no longer have a triangle; all three must be in place.” I wonder what community would look like we saw each other as inseparable parts to this body?
So if God exists as community, then real community is to be reflected in the life of the church. This is why a large percentage of commands in the New Testament deal with relating to others. Living in community reflects the heart of the Triune God. This is why the Ten Commandments are divided into relating to God and relating to others. Lastly, this is why Jesus says everything in the law is summed up with loving God and loving our neighbor (Mark 12:30-31). Commentator Gordon Fee says, “God is not just saving individuals and preparing them for heaven; rather, he is creating a people among whom he can live and who in their life together will reproduce God’s life and character.”
Next time we will look at the rest of the statement of faith regarding God and namely, God as Creator, Sustainer, Ruler and separate from creation. Let me close with a question for each of us: Is my life Trinitarian? Is our church Trinitarian? I am excited for all of the discipleship groups, small groups, dance groups, other groups that exist at Living Hope. Nevertheless, I need to constantly ask: is my life becoming less isolated or more connected like the Trinity? What am I doing to form deep friendships to model the Trinity? Do I live independently or interdependently? If I am married, how Trinitarian is my marriage? In other words, am I cultivating relationship with my spouse? In my closest of relationships, are there openness, transparency, self-disclosure, honesty and love? Or are there secrets? Lying? Jealousy? Hiding? God is self-giving. J. Scott Horrell says, “Each member of the Godhead freely gives of himself to the other, delighting in glorifying the other. God is love.” Am I a self-preserver or self-giver? If I am not living a Trinitarian life, I am not living as God intended me to live. I cannot live as God intended to live.
In his book The Great Divorce, C.S. Lewis has a parable of the afterlife in heaven and hell. Horrell describes it this way: “Lewis takes the reader on a fictitious bus to visit the musty grayness of hell, where people are not so much suffering as simply going about their normal business. Yet the appearance of the residents of hell, depending on when they arrived, is increasingly translucent and ghostlike. Preoccupied with their selfish lives, they become utterly light of substance and less and less persons at all. In contrast, when the bus travels up to the outskirts of heaven, we discover the grass, flowers and trees vibrant with color and bigger and weightier than in earthly life. The residents of heaven, called the ‘Solid People,’ are massive, magnificent human beings. They reflect the grandeur and presence of their Sovereign. In their devotion and obedience to the King, they are innocent and free to care for others, and therefore free to be themselves. Exactly the opposite of the caricature the world portrays of the Christian, it is only in saving relationship to the God of the Bible that we can truly become “solid people” in the satisfying sense that we are designed to be.” What this teaches me is the more Trinitarian I become, the more of a real person I am, as I am living more in the image of God. The less Trinitarian I become, the more hollow and less of a person I am and missing God’s best for me. How are you doing? May the Holy Spirit convict us and through Jesus Christ the Son, transforming us to live lives that reflect His image, to the glory of God the Father.
Tozer, A.W. (1961). The Knowledge of the Holy (1). New York: Harper Collins.
Water, M. (2000). The New Encyclopedia of Christian Quotations (408). Alresford, Hampshire: John Hunt Publishers Ltd.
Geisler, N. L., & Brooks, R. M. (1990). When Skeptics Ask (14). Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books.
Geisler, N. L., & Turek, F. (2004). I Don't Have Enough Faith to be an Atheist (75). Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway Books.
Geisler, N. L., & Brooks, R. M. (16).
Grudem, W. A. (143).
Geisler, N. L., & Brooks, R. M. (20).
Geisler, N. L., & Brooks, R. M. (20-21).
Grudem, W. A. (143).
Geisler, N. L., & Brooks, R. M. (22).
Herrick, Greg. “Trinitarianism or Theology Proper,” http://bible.org/seriespage/trinitarianism-or-theology-proper accessed 10 February 2011.
Grudem, W.A. (226).
Smith, Wilbur quoted in Zuck, R. B. (1997). The Speaker's Quotebook : Over 4,500 Illustrations and Quotations for All Occasions (173).Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications.
Grudem, W.A. (226).
“Triquetra,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triquetra accessed 12 February 2011.
Grudem, W.A. (241).
Copan, P. “Is the Trinity a logical blunder?” http://www.paulcopan.com/articles/pdf/is-the-Trinity-a-logical-blunder_God-as-three-and-one.pdf accessed 10 February 2011.
“What does Mormonism teach?” http://carm.org/teachings-of-mormonism accessed 10 February 2011.
Ryrie, C. C. (1995). A Survey of Bible Doctrine. Chicago: Moody Press.
http://www.watchtower.org/e/bible/joh/chapter_001.htm accessed 10 February 2011.
“Jehovah Witness’ beliefs,” http://carm.org/jehovahs-witnesses-beliefs accessed 11 February 2011.
Grudem, W.A. (248).
From the ESV Study Bible, “Biblical Doctrine: the Trinity,” http://theresurgence.com/2009/11/23/biblical-doctrine-the-trinity accessed 11 February 2011.
Copan, P. Ibid.
Forrester, Craig. “The Trinity, Part 2: Trinitarian Heresies, Part 1,” http://treehead.net/2010/11/28/the-trinity-part-2-trinitarian-heresies-part-1/ accessed 10 February 2011.
Grudem notes, “There is a certain atmospheric condition (called the “triple point” by chemists) at which steam, liquid water, and ice can all exist simultaneously, but even then the quantity of water that is steam is not ice or liquid, the quantity that is liquid is not steam or ice, etc.
Grudem, W. A. (240).
Read “The Doctrine of the Trinity” to see the problems with this analogy, as found in http://philosophy.illinoisstate.edu/dbreyer/Spring 2010/PHI 222/The_Trinity_Handout.pdf accessed 11 February 2011.
Copan, P. Ibid.
Grudem, W.A. (247).
Copan, P. Ibid.
Quoted in Horrell, J. Scott. “The Self-Giving Triune God, The Imago Dei And The Nature Of The Local Church: An Ontology Of Mission,” http://bible.org/article/self-giving triune-god-iimago-deii-and-nature-local-church-ontology-mission#P100_44919 accessed 11 February 2011.