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APO SYLLABUS, Fall 2006

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CHAFER THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

APOLOGETICS 601:  INTRODUCTION TO APOLOGETICS

FALL SEMESTER 2006

Dr. JOHN C. BECK, JR.

COURSE SYLLABUS

Week  1                       *An Introduction to Apologetics                      [P.L. 11-19]

August 28                    *Questions People Ask

*Controlling Scriptures

September 4                    LABOR DAY, no classes                                                                           

Week  2                       *Methodology:  Tests for Truth, GeislerChristian Apologetics

September 11                                                                                       by Norman Geisler

Week  3                       *Theistic Apologetics, GeislerChristian Apologetics

September 18                  *Christian Apologetics, Geisler                                   by Norman Geisler                                                                                          

Reading Assignment:  Each week read the appropriate sections in the lecture notes; Josh McDowell's [J.McD.], A Ready Defense; Paul Little's [P.L.], Know Why You Believe

Week  4                       *Are Miracles Possible?                                   [J.McD. pp. 123-125]

September 25                                                                                       [P.L. pp. 89-100]

                                    *The Existence of God                                                [J.McD. pp. 315-331, 405-407]

                                                                                                                        [P.L. pp. 20-30]

                                    *Is The Bible Reliable?                                    [J.McD. pp. 23-121]

                                                                                                            [P.L. pp. 64-88]

Assignment:  Ask three people what question they would ask if they could ask any question they wanted about God, the Bible and Jesus Christ.

Week  5                       *Can Good Works Get You To Heaven          [J.McD. pp. 420-421]

October 2                     *Is Christ The Only Way To Heaven?            [J.McD. pp. 408, 418]

Week  6                       *Why Do The Innocent Suffer?                     [J.McD. pp. 411-413]

October 9                                                                                        [P.L. pp. 117-128]

                                   *How About Those Who Have Never Heard   [J.McD. pp. 416-417]

                                    *Jesus, His Humanity and Deity                  [J.McD. pp. 187-270]

                                                                                                      [P.L. pp. 31-51]

Week  7                       *What Does Believe Mean?                         [J.McD. pp. 418-420]

October 18                   *Can Anyone Be Sure of Salvation?

*What About the Hypocrite?                       [J.McD. pp. 414-415]

Week  8                       *What About The Jew?

October 23                   *The Nature of World Religion

*What About Non-Christian Religions?           [J.McD. pp. 271-314]

                                                                                    [P.L. pp. 129-139]

Week  9                       *Using Apologetics to Lead People to Christ   Guest Lecturer

October 30                   *Apologetics Discussion Techniques              Don Barkley, ThM

Week  10                     *What About the Cults?                                 [J.McD. pp. 332-364]

November 6                 *What About the Occult?                               [J.McD. pp. 365-404]

                                  *What About Near Death Experiences?

Week  11                     *Answering the Bible's Critics                        [J.McD. pp. 123-186]

November 13

Week  12                     *What About Creation and Evolution?            [J.McD. pp. 421-423]

November 20                                                                                   [P.L. pp. 101-116]

November 21-24         THANKSGIVING VACATION

Week  13                     *Bible Difficulties, Part 1

November 27                                                                                      

Week  14                     TAKE HOME FINAL EXAM DUE

December 4                 *Bible Difficulties, Part 2

Week  15                     ORAL PRESENTATIONS

December 11

SYLLABUS TABLE OF CONTENTS

WEEKLY SCHEDULE   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .      1

SYLLABUS TABLE OF CONTENTS   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .      2

COURSE REQUIREMENTS  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .      2

COMMUNICATION WITH YOUR THEOLOGY PROFESSOR .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .       4

THE TERM PAPER    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .      5

BASIC THEOLOGICAL LIBRARY  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .      9

            FURTHER STUDY ON APOLOGETICS  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    10

PUBLIC SPEAKING   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    12

SAMPLE TERM PAPER     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    14

COURSE REQUIREMENTS

 

TEXT BOOKS

Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics by Norman L. Geisler

The New Evidence That Demands a Verdict by Josh McDowell (or any other of his evidence books)

OPTIONAL:  Christian Apologetics by Normal L. Geisler

 

TERM PAPER

TERM PAPER: Write a TEN PAGE research paper (including title page, table of contents, main text and bibliography) using six to ten references in thesis style in conformity to the standards outlines in A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed., by Kate L. Turabian.  Check your term paper with the section "A Term Paper" you received with this syllabus. Choose a topic for your term paper from the topics listed for study in the syllabus above.  You may also choose a topic from the topics listed in the bibliographies found later on in this syllabus.

RESEARCH TERM PAPERS:   Students should read widely in the written labors of our spiritual forefathers, such as Luther, Calvin, Hodge, Warfield, and Chafer for the purpose of understanding the theology of these areas of study as it has developed to the present day [first two years of study].  Our goal, however, is to train our students to do theology as these men did [second two years of study]. We want each student to leave CTS able to think through categories of Scripture for himself [summary of four year study of theology].

BOOK REVIEW  (Optional)

A book review of 5–10 pages may be written on a book approved by the professor.  The book review will need to conform to the style found in the CTS Journal.  Look at book reviews found in the journal to determine the format your book review should take.  Whether you quote from the book or not, be careful to footnote each reference to the book you review while writing the book review.  A book review in this format is a more difficult assignment to undertake.

ORAL PRESENTATIONS  (Not part of the final grade)

CLASS PRESENTATION: Each student will prepare an oral presentation approximately five to ten minutes in length based on the content of his or her term paper.   Because of your research you will discover insights and spiritual truths that will bring edification to the other members of the class. 

COURSE GRADE

GRADING: The final grade will consist of a Final Exam Part 1 (1/3), a Term Paper/Book Review (1/3), and a Final Exam Part 2 (1/3).

COMMUNICATION WITH YOUR THEOLOGY PROFESSOR

PROFESSOR:  Dr. John C. Beck, Jr.

                           18144 Kinzie Street

                           Northridge, CA  91325

                           Phone:  818-772-7452

                           Cell Phone:  310-990-3514

                           email:  theoprof@chafer.edu

IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS OR NEED HELP

The CTS catalogue states:


We view every student at CTS as an individual.  Our students need not flounder from lack of assistance.  We answer students questions and give personal attention to those seeking it.    We have found that students, even those who post top grades in college, sometimes struggle in a seminary setting.  We are here to help:  our professors see themselves as shepherds, as well as teachers.

If you have a question about class, ministry, or a personal matter, I have given you my home phone number.  Please feel free to call me anytime.  If you are in the San Fernando Valley, I have given you my address.  Please feel free to visit (It helps to call first so that I can be sure to be at home when you arrive).  If you use the internet, I have included my email address.  Please feel free to email me with your questions.  Use whichever form of communication you wish or use all three.     

THE TERM PAPER

OR

WHAT YOUR PROFESSOR WILL LOOK FOR IN YOUR PAPER

Each student will write a TEN PAGE research paper (including title page, table of contents, main text and bibliography) using six to ten references in thesis style conforming to A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed. by Kate L. Turabian

The following questions will help you understand what your professor is looking for when he reads your paper. 

SUBJECT

·         Does your topic focus and develop on the content of this course?

·         Does your topic fit the format of a twenty page paper?

TABLE OF CONTENTS

·         Is the outline and development of your thesis visible in your table of contents?

·         Are page numbers included in your table of contents?

INTRODUCTION

·         Do you explain the importance of your study?

·         Do you state clearly the thesis of your paper?

·         Do you define any terms, if necessary, that are important to the study?

·         Is your introduction concise and to the point?

BODY OF PAPER

·         Is the body of your paper four to seven chapters depending upon your subject?

·         (If it is more chapters the outline should be examined and reformulated)

·         Does each chapter support and relate to your thesis?

CONCLUSION

·         Do you show how the development of your paper supports your thesis?

·         Is your conclusion one page or less?

BIBLIOGRAPHY

·         Have you researched at least six books on your topic?

STYLE OF WRITING

·         Have you kept your writing to a page or less per outline point?

(If not, you might really have two points and will need to subdivide)

·         Have you Has the term paper avoided first and second person references (I, me, we, our, us, you, your, etc.) unless found in a direct quotation?

·         Are you concise and to the point?  Are you concise?  Are you to the point?  (A long sentence might be better written as two short sentences.) 

·         Eliminate surplus, excess, spare, redundant, superfluous, de trop, unessential and recrementitious words.

·         Have you avoided “one sentence” paragraphs?

·         It is wrong to ever split an infinitive.

·         Contractions aren’t necessary.

·         The passive voice is to be avoided.

·         Prepositions are not the words to end sentences with.

·         Be more or less specific.

·         Go around the barn at high noon to avoid colloquialisms.

·         One-word sentences?  Eliminate.

·         Who needs rhetorical questions?

·         Exaggeration is a billion times worse then understatement.

             

FORM

·         Do you have proper margins?  (1 ½ inch left, 1 inch top, bottom and right)

·         Is your paper double spaced?

·         Are quotes of over four lines indented and single spaced?

·         Does each new chapter begin on a new page?

·         Have you left the page number off the first page of each chapter?

·         Have you chosen a 12 point font size?

·         Are your footnotes at the bottom of each page?[1]

THREE FINAL QUESTIONS

·         Is this your first draft?  (If so, then edit and make it better.)

·         Is this your second draft?  (If so, then edit and make it better.)

·         Is this your third draft?  (If so, turn it in and await your reward.)

When you complete your paper you should read it and compare it with the questions listed above. You should be able to answer all the above questions with a “yes”. Then have a friend read your paper.  He or she will be impressed with your research and the written verbal expression of its results (they might also have an idea to contribute to make your paper even better).

 

 

COMPUTER PROBLEMS?

NOTE:  When using a word processing program on a computer you may encounter problems for which you cannot easily find a solution (like getting the page numbers in the right place).  If you are frustrated by a problem with your word processing program do not spend hours or days trying to figure it out yourself.  Just do the best you can to match your paper to the proper form and turn your paper in “as is”.  You will not be graded down for not understanding your word processing program.   Spend your valuable study time on the development of your thesis.  You can figure out the computer glitch at your leisure when you are not trying to meet a deadline for your paper.

The Spell Checker

author unknown


 


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It came with my pea sea

It plainly marques four my revue

Miss steaks eye kin knot sea.

Eye strike a key and type a word

And weight four it two say

Weather eye am wrong oar write

It shows me strait a weigh.

As soon as a mist ache is maid

It nose bee fore two long

And eye can put the error rite

Its rare lea ever wrong.

Eye have run this poem threw it

I am shore your pleased two no

Its letter perfect awl the weigh

My chequer tolled me sew


 



!! BASIC THEOLOGICAL LIBRARY

During the four year seminary education each theologian should begin to build a library for study and research.  Dr. Harry Ironside comments on 2 Timothy 4:13 with a quote from Francis Newman about J. N. Darby, “Never before had I seen a man so resolved that no word of the New Testament should be a dead letter to him.  I once said, ‘But do you really think that no part of the New Testament may have been temporary in its object?  For instance – What should we have lost if St. Paul had never written, “The cloke that I left at Troas bring with thee, and the books, but especially the parchments?’  He answered with the greatest promptitude, ‘I should have lost something, for it was exactly that verse which alone saved me from selling my little library.  No!  Every word, depend upon it, is from the Spirit, and is for eternal service.’”[2]

                The suggestions listed below are divided into three groups:  first, theological works; second, dictionaries and encyclopaedias; third, books on individual doctrines.  Over the four year period of seminary training books from each category should continually be added to your personal library to build a research section on theology (this section would complement the other sections of your library i.e. Old Testament, New Testament, Languages and Church History).

THEOLOGICAL WORKS

Lewis Sperry Chafer, Systematic Theology

Lewis Sperry Chafer and John F. Walvoord, Major Bible Themes

Paul Enns, The Moody Handbook of Theology

Millard J. Erickson, Christian Theology

Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology

Robert P. Lightner, Handbook of Evangelical Theology

Charles C. Ryrie, Basic Theology

Henry C. Thiessen, Lectures in Systematic Theology

DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOPAEDIAS

Walter A. Elwell, Evangelical Dictionary of Theology

James Orr, The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, 1939 edition

Geoffrey W. Bromiley, The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 1982 edition

Merrill F. Unger, Unger’s Bible Dictionary

DOCTRINAL STUDIES

BIBLIOLOGY

                F. F. Bruce, The New Testament Documents:  Are They Reliable?

                Norman L. Geisler and William E. Nix, A General Introduction to the Bible

                Norman L. Geisler, Inerrancy

                Bernard Ramm, Protestant Biblical Interpretation

                Charles C. Ryrie, Dispensationalism Today

THEOLOGY PROPER

                Millard J. Erickson, God the Father Almighty; and God in Three Persons

J. I. Packer, Knowing God

A. W. Tozer, The Attributes of God

Francis A. Schaeffer, Trilogy:  The God Who Is There; Escape from Reason;

           He Is There and He Is Not Silent 

ANGELOLOGY

                Donald Grey Barnhouse, The Invisible War

                C. Fred Dickason, Angels, Elect & Evil

                J. Dwight Pentecost, Your Adversary The Devil

                Merrill F. Unger,  Biblical Demonology

CHRISTOLOGY

                Alfred Edersheim, The Life and times of Jesus the Messiah, 2 vols.

J. Gresham Machen, The Virgin Birth of Christ

J. Dwight Pentecost, The Words and Works of Jesus Christ

                W. Graham Scroggie, A Guide to the Gospels

John F. Walvoord, Jesus Christ Our Lord

                Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield, The Person and Work of Christ

PNEUMATOLOGY

                Robert Gromacki, The Holy Spirit

                Charles C. Ryrie, The Holy Spirit

                John F. Walvoord, The Holy Spirit

ANTHROPOLOGY AND HAMARTIOLOGY

                Duane T. Gish, Evolution:  The Fossils Still Say No!

Phillip E. Johnson, (his trilogy):  Darwin on Trial; Reason in the Balance;

Defeating Darwinism by Opening Minds

Henry M. Morris and John D. Morris, The Modern Creation Trilogy:

                                Scripture and Creation; Science and Creation; Society and Creation

                Erich Sauer, The King of the Earth

                Jonathan Wells, Icons of Evolution:  Science or Myth?

                John C. Whitcomb, Jr., The Early Earth

SOTERIOLOGY

                Lewis Sperry Chafer, Grace the Glorious Theme

                Joseph C. Dillow, The Reign of the Servant Kings

Zane C. Hodges, Absolutely Free

                Robert P. Lightner, Sin, The Savior, and Salvation

Leon Morris, The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross

                Earl D. Radmacher, Salvation

Charles C. Ryrie, So Great Salvation

ECCLESIOLOGY

                Saucy, The Church and God’s Program

                Strauch, Biblical Eldership

ESCHATOLOGY

                Paul N. Benware, Understanding End Times Prophecy

                J. Dwight Pentecost, Things to Come

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHIES

                Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology, Appendix 4, pp. 1224-1230.

 

FURTHER READING ON APOLOGETICS

Archer, Gleason L. Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties.  Grand Rapids, Michigan:  Zondervan.  1982.

Bartlett, John.  Bartlett's Familiar Quotations.  ? 

Boa, Kenneth.  God, I Don't Understand.  Wheaton, Illinois: Victor Books.  1975.

Boice, James Montgomery.  Does Inerrancy Matter?. Oakland, California:  International Council on Biblical Inerreancy.  l979.

Chafer, Lewis Sperry. True Evangelism.  Grand Rapids, Michigan:      Zondervan.  1919.

Craig, William Lane. Reasonable Faith.  Chicago:  Moody Bible Institute.  1984.

Criswel, W. A.  Why I Preach that the Bible is Literally True.  Nashville, Tennessee:  Broadman Press.  l969. 

Dembski, William A., and Richards, Jay Wesley. Unappologetic Apologetics.  Downers Grove:  InterVarsity Press.  2001.

Dewitt, David A. Answering the Tough Ones:  Common Questions about Christianity.  Chicago:  Moody Press.  1980.

Geisler, Norman L. Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics.  Grand Rapids:  Baker Books.  1999.

Geisler, Norman L. Christian Apologetics.  Grand Rapids:  Baker Books.  1976.

Geisler, Norman and Howe, Thomas.  When Critics Ask.  Wheaton, Illinois:  Victor Books.  1992.

Geisler, Norman and Brooks, Ron.  When Skeptics Ask.  Wheaton, Illinois:  Victor Books.  1990.

Hillis, Dick. Is There Really Only One Way?.  Santa Ana, California:  Vision House Publishers.  l974.

Lewis, C.S.  Mere Christianity.  New York, New York:  The Macmillan Co.  l943.

Lewis, Gordon R. Judge for Yourself.  Downers Grove, Illinois:  Inter-Varsity Press.  l975.

Lindsell, Harold.  The Battle for the Bible.  Grand Rapids, Michigan:  Zondervan Publishing House.  l976.

Little, Paul E. Know Why You Believe.  Downers Grove, Illinois:  Inter-Varsity Press.  1967.

McDowell, Josh.  A Ready Defense. Compiled by Bill Wilson.  Nashville, Tenn.:  Thomas Nelson, Inc..  1993.  

McDowell, Josh.  Evidence that Demands a Verdict.  San Bernardino, Calif.: Campus Crusade for Christ, Inc.. 1972.

McDowell, Josh.  More Evidence that Demands a Verdict.  San Bernardino, Calif.:  Campus Crusade for Christ, Inc.. 1975.

McDowell, Josh.  The New Evidence that Demands a Verdict.  Nashville, Tenn.: Thomas Nelson Publishers.  1999.

McDowell, Josh, and Stewart, Don.  Answers to Tough Questions Skeptics Ask About the Christian Faith.  San Bernardino, Calif.:  Here's Life Publishers, Inc..  1980

Moreland, J.P. and Nielsen, Kai. Does God Exist?.  Amherst:  Prometheus Books, 1993

Morison, Frank.  Who Moved the Stone?   Chicago, Illinois:  Inter-Varsity Press.  l958.

Phillips, Bob.  The World's Greatest Collection of Clean Jokes.  Irvine, Calif.:  Harvest House Publishers.  ? 

Phillips, Bob.  More Good Clean Jokes.  Irvine, Calif.: Harvest House Publishers.  1974.

Phillips, Bob.  The Last of the Clean Joke Books.  Irvine, Calif.: Harvest House Publishers.  1974

 

Agnes by Tony Cochran

Rimmer, Harry.  Dead Men Tell Tales.  Berne, Indiana:  The Berne     Witness Company.  l954.

Ryrie, Charles C.  What You Should Know About Inerrancy.  Chicago, Illinois:  Moody Press.  l981.

Schaeffer, Francis.  He Is There and He Is Not Silent.  Wheaton, Illinois:  Tyndale House Publishers.  1972.

Schaeffer, Francis.  The God Who is There.  Chicago, Illinois:  Inter-varsity Press.  l968.

Sproul, R. C. Reason to Believe.  Grand Rapids, Michigan:  Zondervan.  1981.

Whitcomb, Jr., John.  The Early Earth.  Grand Rapids, Michigan:  Baker Book House.  1972.

Whitcomb, Jr., John.  The World That Perished.  Grand Rapids,  Michigan:  Baker Book House.  1973.

OTHER BOOKS THAT MAY BE HELPFUL

Commentaries, Theologies, Archaeology, Old and New Testament Histories and Introductions, Church Histories, Bible Handbooks and Encyclopaedias,  Other Encyclopaedias, Greek, Hebrew, Latin.

 

PUBLIC SPEAKING

Taken from:  BAR CHARTS, INC. AMERICA'S ACADEMIC OUTLINE

QUICK STUDY ACADEMIC OUTLINES. www.barcharts.com

 

HOW TO PREPARE FOR AND PRESENT A SUCCESSFUL SPEECH

PUBLIC SPEAKING OVERVIEW

PARTS OF SPEECHES

+A SPEECH HAS THREE MAIN PARTS:

1.     INTRODUCTION:  gains audience attention, orients the listeners to your topic and prepares them for your speech.

2.     BODY:  contains at least 75% of the information you will speak about. It is divided into 3-5 main points. Each main point is clearly stated and supported by subordinate points containing your research and supporting material.

3.     CONCLUSION:  reviews your main points and provides closure by ending with a strong final statement.

+THE DELIVERY OF A SPEECH IS EFFECTIVE WHEN the speaker knows the material well, maintains eye contact with the audience, uses a variety of vocal changes and appears to move naturally.


 

THE BASIC SPEECH OUTLINE


 


I.     INTRODUCTION

1.     Attention Getter

2.     Significance

3.     Credibility

4.     Thesis Statement

5.     Preview

(Transition into your first main point)

II.    THE MAIN BODY

A.    First Main Point

1.     First subpoint

a.     supporting material            

b.   supporting material

(Transition closing off main point one and opening main point two)

B.    Second Main Point

1.     First subpoint                         

a.     supporting material

2.     Second subpoint

a.     supporting material

b.     supporting material

(Transition closing off main point two and opening third main point)

C.    Third Main Point

1.     First subpoint                    

a.     supporting material

(Transition into conclusion)

III. CONCLUSION

A.    Review of main points

B.    Final Statement

IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY (LIST OF MATERIAL USED IN SPEECH)


SPEECH ORGANIZATION

USE AN OUTLINE FORMAT SIMILAR TO THE

ABOVE AND BELOW DESCRIPTIONS.

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of the introduction is to prepare the audience to listen to your speech

IT CONSISTS OF FIVE STEPS:

1.     Attention Getter: The very first statement that comes out of the speaker's mouth. The attention getter should engage your audience and draw them into your speech.

a.     Rhetorical question:  A question which does not require an answer. Rhetorical questions are effective because they make the audience think about your topic.

b.     Story:  Stories contain: set up, climax, and outcome. Everyone wants to hear a good story especially if it is told with suspense and conflict. Stories can be about real or hypothetical events of the past or present time.

c.     Startling Statement: A statement intended to surprise your audience

d.     Startling Statistic: A statistic intended to surprise your audience

e.     Humor: When you use humor make sure it is related to a point you are going to make in your speech. This will keep you from becoming a flop if your joke or humorous statement does not work

2.     Significance: (give the audience a reason to listen to your speech. Motivate them by telling them the reason the topic is relevant to their lives.

3.     Credibility:  Tell the audience why you are qualified to give the speech.  Have you worked on the project, taken a class, or conducted research on the topic?

4.     Thesis Statement: A single declarative statement capsuling the central idea or specific purpose of your speech.

5.     Preview: A way of forecasting your main points to your audience.  In the preview you list each of the main points you will cover in your speech.

a.     Sometimes the thesis statement and the preview are combined

YOUR INTRODUCTION SHOULD BE WRITTEN OUT WORD FOR WORD AND MEMORIZED.

1.     This will help you maintain eye contact with your audience.

2.     Engaging your audience in the introduction is important because audience members will decide if they will continue to listen during the first minute of your speech.

TRANSITIONS

+FORM A BRIDGE BETWEEN THE PARTS OF YOUR SPEECH

1.     Appear between your introduction and your first main point, then again between your main points and finally between your last main point and your conclusion.

2.     Internal transitions are used between words and/or sentences and tell the audience how two ideas may he related.

3.     External transitions tell your audience that one main idea is ending and another is beginning.

THE MAIN BODY

+MAIN POINTS AND THEIR SUBPOINTS

1.  The body of a speech has between 3-5 main points each with 1 or more subpoints and supporting material.

2. Orally state each main point as you begin discussing it.

+TYPES OF SUPORTING MATERIAL (the substance that gives the audience a reason to believe your main points.)

1.  Testimony: The opinion of an eye witness or expert about an event that took place. Always qualify (discuss the qualifications of the person) and cite (orally state the source or expert's name) Ex. "In her book, Speeeh Therapy, Dr. Sharon Milan states that you can eliminate the use of "um" and other filter words by simply pausing."

2.     Analogy:  A comparison between two different items which reveals their likeness. Ex. "A computer is like a human brain because they both process information"

3.     Statistic:  A numerical collection or fact (may need to be defined in order to clarify it's meaning). Ex. "It's 60% fat!"

4.  Story:  Has a set up, climax and a conclusion.  Suspense, conflict and description help a story to hold the attention of the audience.

5.  Example: Factual or hypothetical used to illustrate a point.

CONCLUSIONS

A way of bringing your talk to a close, reinforcing your major ideas, letting your audience know what you expect of them and providing a final impact. Consists of a review and then a final statement:

+REVIEW: A restatement of the main points you presented in your speech

+FINAL STATEMENT: Should leave a lasting impact on your audience and bring your ideas to a close.

1. Using a powerful quotation is a good way to end a Speech.

2. You can also end by tying your conclusion into a story that you started in your introduction

3. Your final statement should be refined and the language should be powerful and direct.

+THE CONCLUSION FOR THE PERSUASIVE SPEECH ALSO CONTAINS A CALL TO ACTION

1.   In the call to action you tell the audience exactly what you want them to do.  Since the goal of many persuasive speeches is to get your audience to take action, come prepared with materials appropriate to your cause. e.g. pamphlets, petitions, donation cards, etc

2. A statement of personal intent is a credibility building technique,

Demonstrate to your audience you too will be taking action.

Peanuts by Charles Schulz

Peanuts by Charles Schulz


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[1] Right down in this area. (It is amazing how computers make this task so easy).

[2]H. A. Ironside, Timothy Titus and Philemon (Neptune:  Loizeaux Brothers, 1947), p. 254.

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