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The Lord's Supper

The Life of Jesus  •  Sermon  •  Submitted   •  Presented   •  44:46
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The commemoration and remembrance of Jesus Christ’s last supper, and all the benefits that result to believers. Other terms have been used subsequently by Christians, including “Communion” and “Eucharist”.

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Synopsis
The commemoration and remembrance of Jesus Christ’s last supper, and all the benefits that result to believers. Other terms have been used subsequently by Christians, including “Communion” and “Eucharist”.

Terms for the Lord’s Supper in the NT

Acts 2:42 (NIV) — 42 They devoted themselves to the apostles’ teaching and to fellowship, to the breaking of bread and to prayer.
Ac 2:42 “breaking of bread” could mean both eating together and also celebrating the Lord’s Supper;
Acts 2:42 ESV

And they devoted themselves to the apostles’ teaching and the fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayers.

1 Corinthians 10:16 (NIV) — 16 Is not the cup of thanksgiving for which we give thanks a participation in the blood of Christ? And is not the bread that we break a participation in the body of Christ?
1 Co 10:16 The Greek word “koinonia”, here translated “participation”, is traditionally translated “communion”: hence the term “Holy Communion”;
1 Corinthians 10:16 ESV

The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a participation in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break, is it not a participation in the body of Christ?

1 Corinthians 11:20 (NIV) — 20 So then, when you come together, it is not the Lord’s Supper you eat,
1 Co 11:20 the Lord’s Supper;
1 Corinthians 11:20 ESV

When you come together, it is not the Lord’s supper that you eat.

1 Corinthians 11:24 (NIV) — 24 and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, “This is my body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of me.”
1 Co 11:24 Underlying “had given thanks” is the Greek “eucharisteo”, from which comes the term “Eucharist”.
1 Corinthians 11:24 ESV

and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, “This is my body, which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.”

Jesus Christ’s institution of the Lord’s Supper

1 Corinthians 11:23–25 (NIV) — 23 For I received from the Lord what I also passed on to you: The Lord Jesus, on the night he was betrayed, took bread, 24 and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, “This is my body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of me.” 25 In the same way, after supper he took the cup, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood; do this, whenever you drink it, in remembrance of me.”
1 Corinthians 11:23–25 ESV

For I received from the Lord what I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, “This is my body, which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” In the same way also he took the cup, after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me.”

Celebrating the Lord’s Supper in the NT

As part of an ordinary meal

1 Co 11:21 The church was not necessarily wrong to include the sacrament in an ordinary meal; this should have been conducted in a charitable way.
1 Corinthians 11:21 (NIV) — 21 for when you are eating, some of you go ahead with your own private suppers. As a result, one person remains hungry and another gets drunk.
1 Corinthians 11:21 ESV

For in eating, each one goes ahead with his own meal. One goes hungry, another gets drunk.

On the Lord’s day

Acts 20:7 (NIV) — 7 On the first day of the week we came together to break bread. Paul spoke to the people and, because he intended to leave the next day, kept on talking until midnight.
Acts 20:7 ESV

On the first day of the week, when we were gathered together to break bread, Paul talked with them, intending to depart on the next day, and he prolonged his speech until midnight.

See also Jn 20:26
John 20:26 (NIV) — 26 A week later his disciples were in the house again, and Thomas was with them. Though the doors were locked, Jesus came and stood among them and said, “Peace be with you!”

The fourfold formula for breaking bread: taking, giving thanks, breaking, giving

Matthew 26:26 (NIV) — 26 While they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to his disciples, saying, “Take and eat; this is my body.”
Matthew 26:26 ESV

Now as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and after blessing it broke it and gave it to the disciples, and said, “Take, eat; this is my body.”

See also Lk 24:30; Jn 6:11; 1 Co 11:24
Luke 24:30 (NIV) — 30 When he was at the table with them, he took bread, gave thanks, broke it and began to give it to them.
John 6:11 (NIV) — 11 Jesus then took the loaves, gave thanks, and distributed to those who were seated as much as they wanted. He did the same with the fish.
1 Corinthians 11:24 (NIV) — 24 and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, “This is my body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of me.”

The sharing of the cup

1 Corinthians 11:25 (NIV) — 25 In the same way, after supper he took the cup, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood; do this, whenever you drink it, in remembrance of me.”
1 Corinthians 11:25 ESV

In the same way also he took the cup, after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me.”

Themes connected with the Lord’s Supper

The Passover

1 Corinthians 5:7–8 (NIV) — 7 Get rid of the old yeast, so that you may be a new unleavened batch—as you really are. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed. 8 Therefore let us keep the Festival, not with the old bread leavened with malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.
1 Corinthians 5:7–8 ESV

Cleanse out the old leaven that you may be a new lump, as you really are unleavened. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed. Let us therefore celebrate the festival, not with the old leaven, the leaven of malice and evil, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.

See also Jn 11:50 Caiaphas’ words may have an unintended Passover significance; Jn 13:1; Jn 19:14; Jn 19:33; Jn 19:36; Ex 12:46; Nu 9:12
John 11:50 (NIV) — 50 You do not realize that it is better for you that one man die for the people than that the whole nation perish.”
John 13:1 (NIV) — 1 It was just before the Passover Festival. Jesus knew that the hour had come for him to leave this world and go to the Father. Having loved his own who were in the world, he loved them to the end.
John 19:14 (NIV) — 14 It was the day of Preparation of the Passover; it was about noon. “Here is your king,” Pilate said to the Jews.
John 19:33 (NIV) — 33 But when they came to Jesus and found that he was already dead, they did not break his legs.
John 19:36 (NIV) — 36 These things happened so that the scripture would be fulfilled: “Not one of his bones will be broken,”
Exodus 12:46 (NIV) — 46 “It must be eaten inside the house; take none of the meat outside the house. Do not break any of the bones.
Numbers 9:12 (NIV) — 12 They must not leave any of it till morning or break any of its bones. When they celebrate the Passover, they must follow all the regulations.

The new covenant

1 Co 11:25 The reference to the (new) covenant implies a personal relationship with God and sins forgiven.
1 Corinthians 11:25 (NIV) — 25 In the same way, after supper he took the cup, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood; do this, whenever you drink it, in remembrance of me.”
1 Corinthians 11:25 ESV

In the same way also he took the cup, after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me.”

Remembrance

1 Corinthians 11:24 (NIV) — 24 and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, “This is my body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of me.”
1 Corinthians 11:24 ESV

and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, “This is my body, which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.”

Thanksgiving, fellowship and unity

1 Corinthians 10:16 (NIV) — 16 Is not the cup of thanksgiving for which we give thanks a participation in the blood of Christ? And is not the bread that we break a participation in the body of Christ?
1 Corinthians 10:16 ESV

The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a participation in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break, is it not a participation in the body of Christ?

See also Mt 26:26–27; 1 Co 11:20–21
Matthew 26:26–27 (NIV) — 26 While they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to his disciples, saying, “Take and eat; this is my body.” 27 Then he took a cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you.
1 Corinthians 11:20–21 (NIV) — 20 So then, when you come together, it is not the Lord’s Supper you eat, 21 for when you are eating, some of you go ahead with your own private suppers. As a result, one person remains hungry and another gets drunk.

The Lord’s return

1 Corinthians 11:26 (NIV) — 26 For whenever you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.
1 Corinthians 11:26 ESV

For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.

See also Mt 26:29; 1 Co 16:22; Re 22:20
Matthew 26:29 (NIV) — 29 I tell you, I will not drink from this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom.”
1 Corinthians 16:22 (NIV) — 22 If anyone does not love the Lord, let that person be cursed! Come, Lord!
Revelation 22:20 (NIV) — 20 He who testifies to these things says, “Yes, I am coming soon.” Amen. Come, Lord Jesus.

Separation from sin

1 Co 10:21 Paul is referring to feasts in heathen temples.
1 Corinthians 10:21 (NIV) — 21 You cannot drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons too; you cannot have a part in both the Lord’s table and the table of demons.
1 Corinthians 10:21 ESV

You cannot drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons. You cannot partake of the table of the Lord and the table of demons.

See also 1 Co 11:27–32
1 Corinthians 11:27–32 (NIV) — 27 So then, whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of sinning against the body and blood of the Lord. 28 Everyone ought to examine themselves before they eat of the bread and drink from the cup. 29 For those who eat and drink without discerning the body of Christ eat and drink judgment on themselves. 30 That is why many among you are weak and sick, and a number of you have fallen asleep. 31 But if we were more discerning with regard to ourselves, we would not come under such judgment. 32 Nevertheless, when we are judged in this way by the Lord, we are being disciplined so that we will not be finally condemned with the world.

A foretaste of heaven

Matthew 26:29 (NIV) — 29 I tell you, I will not drink from this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom.”
Matthew 26:29 ESV

I tell you I will not drink again of this fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom.”

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