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The Confession to the King

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Notes & Transcripts

I. General Question (13-14)

Matthew 16:13–15 NASB95
13 Now when Jesus came into the district of Caesarea Philippi, He was asking His disciples, “Who do people say that the Son of Man is?” 14 And they said, “Some say John the Baptist; and others, Elijah; but still others, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets.” 15 He said to them, “But who do you say that I am?”
Matthew 16:13–14 NASB95
13 Now when Jesus came into the district of Caesarea Philippi, He was asking His disciples, “Who do people say that the Son of Man is?” 14 And they said, “Some say John the Baptist; and others, Elijah; but still others, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets.”
Matthew 16:13–20 NASB95
13 Now when Jesus came into the district of Caesarea Philippi, He was asking His disciples, “Who do people say that the Son of Man is?” 14 And they said, “Some say John the Baptist; and others, Elijah; but still others, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets.” 15 He said to them, “But who do you say that I am?” 16 Simon Peter answered, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” 17 And Jesus said to him, “Blessed are you, Simon Barjona, because flesh and blood did not reveal this to you, but My Father who is in heaven. 18 I also say to you that you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church; and the gates of Hades will not overpower it. 19 I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatever you bind on earth shall have been bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall have been loosed in heaven.” 20 Then He warned the disciples that they should tell no one that He was the Christ.
The Gospel of Matthew, Volume 2 The Scene of the Great Discovery (Matthew 16:13–16)

To that end, he withdrew to the districts of Caesarea Philippi. Caesarea Philippi lies about twenty-five miles north-east of the Sea of Galilee. It was outside the domain of Herod Antipas, who was the ruler of Galilee, and within the area of Philip the Tetrarch. The population was mainly non-Jewish, and there Jesus would have peace to teach the Twelve.

The Gospel of Matthew, Volume 2 The Scene of the Great Discovery (Matthew 16:13–16)

Not only the Syrian gods had their worship here. Near to Caesarea Philippi there rose a great hill, in which was a deep cavern; and that cavern was said to be the birthplace of the great god Pan, the god of nature. So much was Caesarea Philippi identified with that god that its original name was Panias, and to this day the place is known as Banias. The legends of the gods of Greece gathered around Caesarea Philippi.

John the Baptist
Elijah:
Malachi 4:5 NASB95
“Behold, I am going to send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and terrible day of the Lord.
Jeremiah:
The Gospel of Matthew, Volume 2 The Inadequacy of Human Categories (Matthew 16:13–16 Contd)

Jeremiah had a curious place in the expectations of the people of Israel. It was believed that, before the people went into exile, Jeremiah had taken the ark and the altar of incense out of the Temple, and hidden them away in a lonely cave on Mount Nebo; and that, before the coming of the Messiah, he would return and produce them, and the glory of God would come to the people again (2 Maccabees 2:1–12). In 4 Ezra [2 Esdras] 2:18, the promise of God is: ‘I will send you help, my servants Isaiah and Jeremiah.’

Matthew 16:13-20

John, Elijah, or Jeremiah resurrected. They recognized that Jesus was supernatural.

II. Personal Question (15-17)

Matthew 16:16–17 NASB95
16 Simon Peter answered, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” 17 And Jesus said to him, “Blessed are you, Simon Barjona, because flesh and blood did not reveal this to you, but My Father who is in heaven.
Matthew 16:15–17 NASB95
15 He said to them, “But who do you say that I am?” 16 Simon Peter answered, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” 17 And Jesus said to him, “Blessed are you, Simon Barjona, because flesh and blood did not reveal this to you, but My Father who is in heaven.
Matthew 16:
Christ = Messiah = Chosen One
The Gospel of Matthew, Volume 2 The Inadequacy of Human Categories (Matthew 16:13–16 Contd)

Once Napoleon gave his verdict on Jesus. ‘I know men,’ he said, ‘and Jesus Christ is more than a man.’

The Gospel of Matthew, Volume 2 The Inadequacy of Human Categories (Matthew 16:13–16 Contd)

Our knowledge of Jesus must never be at second hand. We might know every verdict ever passed on Jesus; we might know every Christology that human minds have ever thought out; we might be able to give a competent summary of the teaching about Jesus of every great thinker and theologian—and still not be Christians. Christianity never consists in knowing about Jesus; it always consists in knowing Jesus. Jesus Christ demands a personal verdict. He did not ask only Peter, he asks every one of us: ‘You—what do you think of me?’

III. Powerful Declaration (18-20)

Matthew 16:18–20 NASB95
I also say to you that you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church; and the gates of Hades will not overpower it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatever you bind on earth shall have been bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall have been loosed in heaven.” Then He warned the disciples that they should tell no one that He was the Christ.
Matthew 16:18–19 NASB95
18 I also say to you that you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church; and the gates of Hades will not overpower it. 19 I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatever you bind on earth shall have been bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall have been loosed in heaven.”

A. The Foundation of the Church

(this rock)
Peter not a pope:
1 Peter 5:1 NASB95
Therefore, I exhort the elders among you, as your fellow elder and witness of the sufferings of Christ, and a partaker also of the glory that is to be revealed,
Ephesians 2:20 NASB95
having been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus Himself being the corner stone,
S Lewis Johnson — Chrysostom said, “On this stone,” that is to say, on the faith of this confession, I will build my church and this confession is thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God.” Ambrose, who was very influential in Augustine’s life said, then the Lord replies to him, Peter, on this stone I will build my church—that is to say on this confession of the universal faith I will build the faithful that they may have life, in his commentary on Ephesians. The great Augustine said, what is the meaning of saying of Jesus Christ? It is this, I will build my church on this faith on what has just been said, to wit: thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God. That he said on in his comments on the first epistle of John. Then he also said in his comments on the Gospel of John, on this rock which thou has confessed, I will build my church for the rock is Christ. And then Jerome said, the rock is Christ, in his commentary on the Gospel of Matthew. So you can see it’s impossible for us to interpret this passage according to the unanimous tradition of the fathers. Mr. Lenoy counted the comments of the fathers, looked at 85 interpretations of this passage from the church fathers. He found that 17 of the fathers believed that Peter was the rock—17 out of 85. That eight of them believed the apostles were the rock. Forty-four of them believed that the statement of verse 17 was the rock, and 16 of them believed that Jesus Christ was the rock. So were 60 out of the 85 of the church fathers believed that the statement, “Thou art Peter and upon this rock I will build my church,” has to do with the truth that the church is grounded upon our Lord Jesus Christ.

B. The Certainty Church

(I WILL)

C. The Intimacy of the Church -

(MY church) Saul, Saul why are persecuting (church?) me? [John MacArthur in plane where the man was amazed that John knew Jesus personally.]

D. The Identity of the Church

(CHURCH)

E. The Invincibility of the Church

(Not prevail)
hades = the grave, death. Death cannot hold God’s people in its clutches. The promise of resurrection.
Revelation 1:18 NASB95
and the living One; and I was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore, and I have the keys of death and of Hades.
Revelation 1:18
This gave them boldness to die for Jesus.

F. The Authority of the Church

Why did Jesus give Peter this authority? Because he made the confession of, “you are the Christ.” Jesus doesn’t limit it to Peter. All others who make that confession receive the same authority.
John 20:22–23 NASB95
And when He had said this, He breathed on them and said to them, “Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, their sins have been forgiven them; if you retain the sins of any, they have been retained.”
John 20:
Matthew 18:17–18 NASB95
If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the church; and if he refuses to listen even to the church, let him be to you as a Gentile and a tax collector. Truly I say to you, whatever you bind on earth shall have been bound in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth shall have been loosed in heaven.
Matthew 18

G. The Patience of the Church

Peter not a pope.
1 Peter 5:1 NASB95
Therefore, I exhort the elders among you, as your fellow elder and witness of the sufferings of Christ, and a partaker also of the glory that is to be revealed,
1 pet 5:1
Ephesians 2:20 NASB95
having been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus Himself being the corner stone,

VI. Solemn Warning (20)

VI. Solemn Warning (20)

Matthew 16:
Matthew 16:20 NASB95
20 Then He warned the disciples that they should tell no one that He was the Christ.
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