I. The authority of God
God’s authority is an aspect of his unalterable, universal and eternal dominion over his world (for which see ; ; .; 146:10; ., etc.). This universal Kingship is distinct from (though basic to) the covenanted relationship between himself and Israel by which Israel became his people and kingdom (cf. ), and so heirs of his blessing. His regal authority over mankind consists in his unchallengable right and power to dispose of men as he pleases (compared by Paul to the potter’s exousia over the clay, ; cf. ), plus his indisputable claim that men should be subject to him and live for his glory. Throughout the Bible, the reality of God’s authority is proved by the fact that all who ignore or flout this claim incur divine judgment. The royal Judge has the last word, and so his authority is vindicated.
In OT times
Packer, J. I. (1996). Authority. In D. R. W. Wood, I. H. Marshall, A. R. Millard, & D. J. Wiseman (Eds.), New Bible dictionary (3rd ed., p. 106). Leicester, England; Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.