Faithlife
Faithlife

Historical Overview of the Protestant Reformation

The History of the Reformation - Part 1 of 5  •  Sermon  •  Submitted
0 ratings
· 16 views

Overview of the history and key theological issues of the Protestant Reformation.

Notes & Transcripts | Handout | Sermon Questions
During the four centuries from the deaths of Thomas Aquinas and Bonaventure in 1274 to the births of Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frederick Handel in 1685, Western Christianity experienced fundamental and far-reaching changes in the interpretation - indeed, in the very definition - of church and dogma. [Jeroslav Pelikan]

a) Fall of Jerusalem in 70AD

Whatever validity there may be to such a concentration on the sixteenth century, however, the place of the Reformation in the history of the development of Christian doctrine becomes clear only in the context of that history.

i) Jesus enters the temple with a controversial cleansing ()

ii) He leaves the temple with a controversial prophecy of destruction

iii)

iv) Twelve Tribes who are scattered

v) to elect exiles

vi)

b) Council of Nicea (321) & Constantine (325)

i) Theological Issues

(1) The nature of the Son of God

(2) Arius – Arianism (256-336)

(a) Accused Alexander of Alexandria of Sebellianism
(b) Claim: Jesus was created from nothing before the universe was made.

(3) Sebellius – Sebellianism – Modalism (late 2nd-early 3rd century)

(a) Modern Modalist – TD Jakes

(4) Athanasius – Orthodoxy (Alexander’s defender) (296-373)

(a) Bishop of Alexandria

ii) Political Issues

(1) Last major persecution of the church by Diocletian (303)

(2) Constantive’s victory over Maxentius – Milvian Bridge (312)

iii) Jerome – Latin Vulgate (347-420)

(1) Learned Hebrew as a hermit in the Syrian desert in 374

(2) Hardly any Christians knew Hebrew

(3) Pope Damasus asked him to prepare a new Latin translation of the Bible

(4) Jerome argued that Christians must only accept the books of the OT that the Jews included in their canon.

(5) Jerome found it easy to pick a quarrel and turn it into an all-out war.

iv) Augustine (354—430)

(1) Converted in a garden reading after hearing a child saying: Tolle Lege – Take up and read.

(2) Augustine v Pelagius

(a) Beliefs about human nature proved heretical
(i) Humans are born sinless
(ii) Adams fall did not corrupt human nature
(iii) Sinless perfection in this life was possible
(iv) Pelagius believed that God’s grace meant two things:
1. God’s gift of natural free-will
2. God’s gift of moral law and the example of Christ
3. The ecumenical Council of Ephesus condemned Pelagisianism as heresy in 431
(v) Much of Augustine’s writings were against Pelagius

b) Council of Chalcedon 451

i) The nature of Christ – if Jesus was fully divine, God from God, of the same substance as the Father, then how was he human?
ii) Jesus is one person existing in two natures – hypostatic union

c) The Monastic Rescue – Benedictine’s Option

i) Benedict of Nursia (480-547)
ii) Educated in rhetoric and law at Rome
iii) Established a Monastery at Monte Cassino in 520
Introduction to the subject for the next five weeks.
Work through the creeds and confessions of early Christianity as well as spend some time discussion Augustine and Wycliffe.
Second, we will devote some attention to Medieval Roman Catholic Theology and interact with the life and teachings of Martin Luther.
Third, I want to spend some time briefly covering Ulrich Zwingli, Phillip Melancthon, Heinrich Bullinger, and John Calvin along with their contributions to the reformation.
Fourth, we will dedicate an entire Sunday to the history of the Bible from the original to modern translations as well as what a good theology of Scripture looks like and how to defend the orthodox Christian belief about the Scripture.
Fifth, we will close the final Sunday of October talking about the fruit of the Protestant Reformation: the Five Solas. [Sola Gratia; Sola Fide, Solus Christus, Sola Scriptura, Soli Deo Gloria]

I) The Creeds of Early Christianity

15 minutes
What is a confessional Christian?
Creeds and confessions that have proved useful over the centuries are clearly immune to the passing fads and tastes of the present. Hence, such creeds and confessions are profoundly countercultural in a biblical way. [Carl Trueman, The Creedal Imperative]

A) The ecumenical councils of the church

When was the first council of the Christian church actually convened and what was the primary issue?
When was the first council of the Christian Church and what was the issue? What is your source?

i) The Council of Jerusalem ()

(1) Concerned the inclusion of Gentiles in the church
How do we know that Christ died for all men without distinction?

ii) “R” or The Old Roman Creed (2rd century)

Write these elements on the board.
(1) The Trinity
(2) Virgin birth
(3) Divinity of Christ
(4) Death, burial, resurrection, and ascension
(5) Sitting at the right hand of God
(6) The second coming
(7) The holy Church
(8) Remission of sins
(9) Resurrection of the flesh

iii) The Council of Nicaea & The Nicene Creed (325)

(1) A response to controversy concerning the nature of Christ
(a) Arius claimed that Christ was God of a different substance, lessor than the Father.
(2) Another important matter was fixing Easter on the calendar (Rome (Western) and Alexandria (Eastern) could not agree)
(a) The absolute sovereignty of God and God as creator of all things visible and invisible
(b) The virgin birth of Christ
(c) The humanity and divinity of Christ
(d) Death & resurrection of Christ
(e) The divinity and work of the Holy Spirit sent from the Father
(f) In one holy, Catholic Church
(g) One baptism for the remission of sins
(h) Future resurrection

iv) The First Council of Constantinople (381)

(1) Dealt with Arianism & Sebellianism
(a) Arianism – Christ was God but of a different substance
(b) Sebellianism – Modalism (modern day Jesus’ only movement)
Can you think of any modern-day preachers who would affirm modalism?
What cult claiming to be Christian believes that Jesus is God, but not like the Father?
There is one God, Creator of all things, infinitely perfect, and eternally existing in three manifestations: Father, Son and Holy Spirit. [Source: http://thepottershouse.org/explore/belief-statement/]

In the unity of the Godhead there be three persons, of one substance, power, and eternity: God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost:

In the unity of the Godhead there be three persons, of one substance, power, and eternity: God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost:

v) The Council of Ephesus (431)

(1) Nestorianism – two persons in Christ
(a) Pope Leo I, aka, Leo the Great articulated what is the orthodox position on the matter: Christ is one person with two natures.
(2) Pelagianism – denial of original sin & total depravity. The human will, as created with its abilities by God, is sufficient to save even though every good work requires and is assisted by God’s grace.

vi) The Second Council of Constantinople (451)

(1) Dealt with the controversy of the nature of Christ’s humanity
(a) Christ was indeed a man in every sense
(b) Yet, Christ was a perfect man, without sin
(c) Many churches in the east rejected Constantinople – holding to a Monophysite view of Christ’s nature (one nature, not two)
(d) This ultimately let to infighting and weakened Christianity in the east making it easier for Islam to sweep through the region a few centuries later
(2) The second issue was that of the patriarchs. Because of the political or spiritual importance of their cities, the bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Antioch, Alexandria, and Jerusalem were recognized as having the highest rank.
(3) Beginning around this time, the church began recognizing ecumenical councils and regarding their decisions about doctrine and discipline as inspired by the Holy Spirit and therefore authoritative.
(4) In the East, a council was called by the emperor. In the West, only the pope could call a council. More about this next week.

vii) The Apostles’ Creed (final form in 7th century)

(1) Response to Gnosticism & false teaching in general
(2) Concerned with preserving apostolic tradition or the rule of faith
(3) Essentially is the evolution of the Old Roman Creed
(4) These early creeds were used with converts to prepare them for baptism
(a) God is almighty – sovereign
(b) The divinity of Christ
(c) The virgin birth of Christ
(d) Death, burial, resurrection, & ascension
(e) Second coming to judge the living and the dead
(f) The Holy Spirit
(g) The holy Catholic Church
(h) Forgiveness of sins
(i) Future resurrection of the dead
(j) Life everlasting

What are the elements of the common confession of Christianity at this point?

What are the elements of the common confession of Christianity at this point in time?
What is the role of confessions/statements of faith within the Christian community?
What should we do if a member of HGBC denies a element of the common confession of Christianity?

II) Augustine (354—430)

15 minutes: Total 30 minutes

A) Augustine’s life

i) Born in North-West Africa, modern day Algeria to a pagan father and Christian mother, Monica.
ii) Lived with a woman whom he never married, had a son, Adeodatus.
iii) Fell in love with philosophy while in Carthage.
iv) Could not find answers to his questions in the Bible so he turned to the Gnostic sect known as the Manichees.
v) Augustine discovered Neoplatonism and then stumbled onto the preaching of Ambrose, bishop of Milan.
i) Converted in a garden reading after hearing a child saying: Tolle Lege – Take up and read.
ii) Augustine v Pelagius
What is known is that in 405, while at Rome, he (Pelagius) had his first encounter with Augustine’s theology, against which he reacted violently because it made everything dependent on God’s grace and seemed to leave no place for human effort and participation. [Justo Gonzalez, A History of Christian Thought]

B) Augustine’s Theology

If all we want to do is sin, then how can one’s will be changed so that they now want to believe in Christ?
i) Augustine believed that God was sovereign over all aspects of his creation.
ii) Believed that teaching is impossible unless the learner already knows he is being taught. In my own interactions with unbelievers and skeptics, I make much of this view arguing that knowledge is the necessary condition for knowledge.
iii) Augustine emphasizes the distinction between the Creator and the creature. Knowledge occurs when the personal God illumines the minds of humans to understand him and to understand the world he has made.
iv) Crede ut intelligas: believe, that you may understand.
v) God created time, otherwise time would be eternal. This is unintelligible.
vi) Augustine believed that free-will was inevitably subordinate to divine sovereignty. That is, the will is not uncaused or better, self-caused.
vii) Augustine affirmed original sin and the total depravity of humanity after the fall.
viii) Augustine believed that all Christians were predestined to salvation.
ix) Agustine understood grace to be a divine power or fluid that is infused into us.

C) Pelagius’ beliefs about human nature proved heretical

(i) Humans are born sinless
(ii) Adam’s fall did not corrupt human nature
(iii) Sinless perfection in this life was possible
(iv) Pelagius believed that God’s grace meant two things:
(a) God’s gift of natural free-will
(b) God’s gift of moral law and the example of Christ
(c) Death is not the result of sin
(iv)
(d) The ecumenical Council of Ephesus condemned Pelagianism as heresy in 431
(e) Much of Augustine’s writings were against Pelagius

a) Hebrew
i) Manuscripts
(1) Masoretic Text
(2) Samaritan Pentateuch
(3) LXX
(4) DSS
b) Aramaic
i) 5 sections of text are written in Aramaic
c) Greek
i) Manuscripts
(1) Papyri
(2) Siniaticus
(3) Vaticanus
d) Latin
i) Old Latin
ii) Jerome’s Latin Vulgate
e) The Canon
i) What is the canon? Kanon – measuring rod, standard.
ii) 39 OT books
iii) 27 NT books
iv) How not to think about the canon!
v) How to think about the canon.
f) Question period

III) John Wycliffe (1330-1384) – The Morning Star (10m) (40)

10 minutes: Total 40 minutes
French council of Toulouse forbad laypeople from reading the Bible (1229)

A) The life of Wycliffe

i) Oxford University theologian
ii) Religious advisor to King Edward III
iii) Around 1378-80 Wycliffe published The Truth of Holy Scripture, On The Church, The Power of the Pope, and On the Eucharist.
iv) Because of his views on transubstantiation, the English court broke off support of Wycliffe and Oxford turned against him and expelled his followers.
v) He set out to translate the Latin Vulgate into English. The task was only completed after he died.
vi) Wycliffe also sent out preachers and provided sermons for them.
vii) Wycliffe died in 1384.
viii) 34 years after his death, Church authorities dug up his bones, burned them, and one account says they threw his ashes into the river Swift while another account says they were dumped at sea.

B) The Teachings of Wycliffe

i) Wycliffe affirmed that God delegated authority over secular matters to civil authorities, and over spiritual matters to the church.
d)
ii) The only source for sound doctrine is the Bible.
iii) Every claim, regardless of who makes it, must be subjected the teachings of Holy Scripture.
iv) The church is the body of Christ, rooted in God’s eternal predestination, infallibly known to God alone.
v) The papacy is of human origin, not divine. The pope has no authority over secular government.
f) Wrote a second work: On The Church where he defined the church in terms of the body of Christ, rooted in God’s eternal predestination, infallibly known to God alone.
vi) Wycliffe soon declared all popes, good and bad as Antichrist.
vii) He rejected transubstantiation and went back to the earlier views of Augustine.
k) He set out to translate the Latin Vulgate into English. The task was only completed after he died.
l) Wycliffe also sent out preachers and provided sermons for them.
m) Wycliffe died in 1384.
n) 34 years after his death, Church authorities dug up his bones, burned them, and one account says they threw his ashes into the river Swift while another account says they were dumped at sea.
Transubstantiation: Beneath the medieval concept of a eucharistic sacrifice lay belief in the real presence of Christ in the elements. By consecration, it was held, the bread is substantially the body of Christ and the wine his blood. Naturally we still see, touch, taste, and smell bread and wine, for the so–called accidents remain intact. But the substance has supposedly changed (transubstantiation). Hence the priest offers Christ’s body and blood on the altar, and communicants receive them by receiving the elements. All who receive the elements receive Christ. Properly the Supper should be administered at least once a week. Non-communicating attendance makes no sense.
k) He set out to translate the Latin Vulgate into English. The task was only completed after he died.
Beneath the medieval concept of a eucharistic sacrifice lay belief in the real presence of Christ in the elements. By consecration, it was held, the bread is substantially the body of Christ and the wine his blood. Naturally we still see, touch, taste, and smell bread and wine, for the so–called accidents remain intact. But the substance has supposedly changed (transubstantiation). Hence the priest offers Christ’s body and blood on the altar, and communicants receive them by receiving the elements.
l) Wycliffe also sent out preachers and provided sermons for them.
m) Wycliffe died in 1384.
Donald K. McKim and David F. Wright, Encyclopedia of the Reformed Faith (Louisville, KY; Edinburgh: Westminster/John Knox Press; Saint Andrew Press, 1992), 226.
n) 34 years after his death, Church authorities dug up his bones, burned them, and one account says they threw his ashes into the river Swift while another account says they were dumped at sea.
John Wycliffe is rightly called the morning star of the reformation. His followers are called Wycliffites, or Lollards (which is a term of abuse). Waldensians.
How should the church handle obstinate heretics and immoral people?
28 He said to them, ‘An enemy has done this.’ So the servants said to him, ‘Then do you want us to go and gather them?’ 29 But he said, ‘No, lest in gathering the weeds you root up the wheat along with them. 30 Let both grow together until the harvest, and at harvest time I will tell the reapers, “Gather the weeds first and bind them in bundles to be burned, but gather the wheat into my barn.” ’ ”
28 He said to them, ‘An enemy has done this.’ So the servants said to him, ‘Then do you want us to go and gather them?’ 29 But he said, ‘No, lest in gathering the weeds you root up the wheat along with them. 30 Let both grow together until the harvest, and at harvest time I will tell the reapers, “Gather the weeds first and bind them in bundles to be burned, but gather the wheat into my barn.” ’ ”

IV) John Hus (5) (1372-1415) (5m) (45)

The Holy Bible: English Standard Version (Wheaton: Standard Bible Society, 2016), .IV) John Hus (5) (1372-1415) (5m) (45)

His → preaching in the vernacular attracted large crowds to hear sermons that predominately explored the need for morality, especially in reforming the → corruption of the church, urged increased spiritual zeal, and searched the Scriptures for truth. Hus consistently asserted that it was more important to follow Christ and the Scriptures than the pope or tradition.

A) The Life of John Hus

i) The greatest of the Bohemian (Czech Republic) reformers.
ii) Preacher at Bethlehem chapel in Prague, rector of Prague University.
iii) Studied and greatly admired Wycliffe.
iv) Huss’ campaign for reform took on a more nationalist kind of movement. Asserting Slavic identity.
v) In 1411 the dark clouds began to gather around him when he denounced indulgences.
vi) Pope John XXIII excommunicated Huss.
vii) Huss was promised safe conduct and summoned to the Council of Constance in 1414.
viii) The Council immediately threw him in prison where he languished for six months. His health began to fail with headaches, fever, bleeding, and vomiting.
ix) In 1415 the Council humiliated him, turned him over to the Emperor, who had him burned at the stake.
x) This eventually would cause the Catholic Church to send in armies for a crusade against the Bohemian revolt but to their utter amazement, the Hussites achieved one victory after another.
xi) The followers of Huss eventually became known as the Moravians.

B) The Theology of John Hus

b) Preacher at Bethlehem chapel in Prague, rector of Prague University.
c) Studied and greatly admired Wycliffe.
d) Huss’ campaign for reform took on a more nationalist kind of movement. Asserting Slavic identity.
e) In 1411 the dark clouds began to gather around him when he denounced indulgences.
f) Pope John XXIII excommunicated Huss.
i) Hus argued that the Church was the entire body of the elect of all ages, known to God alone, who had predestined them to belong to Himself by His free grace, and that Christ, not the pope, was the head of the church.
ii) Hus also accepted Wycliffe’s view that preaching, not the celebration of the sacraments, was the true heart of ordained ministry.
iii) Hus never broke from the Catholic Church. He continued to affirm transubstantiation, purgatory, the veneration of Mary, and that salvation was forged on the anvil of love and necessitated good works, contrary to Luther’s emphasis upon divine grace.
j) The Council immediately threw him in prison where he languished for six months. His health began to fail with headaches, fever, bleeding, and vomiting.
k) In 1415 the Council humiliated him, turned him over to the Emperor, who had him burned at the stake.
l) This eventually would cause the Catholic Church to send in armies for a crusade against the Bohemian revolt but to their utter amazement, the Hussites achieved one victory after another.
m) The followers of Huss eventually became known as the Moravians.

V) Johannes Guttenburg (5) (50)

5 minutes: Total 45 minutes

A) The Life of Johannes Guttenberg

a)
i) Born to an upper-class family in Mainz, Germany.
ii) In 1439, Guttenberg experienced a serious financial setback regarding the production of metal-polished mirrors.
iii) Guttenberg promised the investors that he would let them in on a secret. This “secret” is said to have been the idea of moveable type.

B) The Printing Press

i) By 1450, the press was in operation.
ii) The first item to be printed was a poem.
iii) In 1455 Guttenberg completed his 42 line Bible. Approximately 180 copies were printed.
ii) Ushered in the Modern period & played a key role in the development of the Renaissance.

VI) The Renaissance (1300-1700)

5 minutes: Total 50 minutes
The great acheivement of the thirteenth century in the intellectual field was the realization of a synthesis of reason and faith, philosophy and theology.
Frederich Copleston, A History of Philosophy, Vol. III, pg. 3.
The believer does not seek to understand, that he may believe, but he believes that he may understand: for unless he believed he would not understand.
Sidney Norton Deane with Saint Anselm, Proslogium; Monologium; An Appendix, In Behalf of the Fool, by Gaunilon; and Cur Deus Homo (Chicago: The Open Court Publishing Company, 1939), 3

A) Philosophical Issues

i) Intellectual autonomy grounded in an uncritical view of human reason.
ii) Renaissance thinkers attempted to recover the source, to go back to the sources.
iii) Rebirth of interest in the philosophy of Greece and Rome.
iii
(a) Lucretius: On the Nature of Things
(b) Cicero: On the Nature of the Gods
iv) The dominant philosophy during this period was Aristotelianism.
(a) Aristotle was revived by Arabic scholars Avicenna and Averroes.
(b) Thomas Aquinas is mainly responsible for the influence of Aristotelian thought on Christian theology and especially modern Christian apologetics.
(c) Established a theory of reality that accounts for both sense experience and transcendent morality.
(d) Aristotle and Plato had a terrible time with the reality of change.
(e) Both philosophers wanted to hold life out as a continuum but they realized the problems this introduced.
(e) On the one hand they wanted to hold life out as a continuum but they also realized the problem this introduced.
(f) This is why we see Aristotle’s hypothesis of the unmoved mover. Regrettably, this was embraced by Aquinas and has infected modern Christian apologetic.
(f) Hence, we see Aristotle’s unmoved mover. This was embraced by Aquinas, who loved Aristotle, and has permeated Christian apologetics today.
(g) Aristotle is an empiricist.
v) Odd as it may sound, there was an interest in the occult.

B) Theological Issues

i) Faith and Reason
Faith and Reason
ii) Episteological issue of authority: this goes to the question of epistemic authority.
iii) It comes as no surprise that in the middle of the Renaissance, we see the great Protestant Reformation breaking out.
iv) The thirteenth century
According to Scripture, all unrepentant heretics should be burned at the stake without delay.
Sidney Norton Deane with Saint Anselm, Proslogium; Monologium; An Appendix, In Behalf of the Fool, by Gaunilon; and Cur Deus Homo (Chicago: The Open Court Publishing Company, 1939), 3.
b) Theological Issues
i) The Papacy & Magisterium
ii) Scripture
iii) Salvation – Grace & Faith
c) Questions
Historical Overview of the Protestant Reformation – II of V
VII) Theological Issues of the Day (20m)
a) The Mass and Purgatory
b) The Papacy
c) The Magisterium
d) Indulgences
e) Scripture
f) Grace
g) Faith
h) Questions
VIII) Martin Luther (20)
a) Biography
b) View of God
c) Vow
d) Monastery Training
e) Doctoral Training
f) Conversion
g) Conflict
h) Luther’s 95 Theses
i) The Peasants Revolt
j) Erasmus & The Humanists
k) Questions
IX) Melancthon
X) Zwingli & The Swiss Reformation
XI) Bullinger
XII) Calvin

IV) The Scripture (15m) (30)

a) Hebrew
i) Manuscripts
(1) Masoretic Text
(2) Samaritan Pentateuch
(3) LXX
(4) DSS
b) Aramaic
i) 5 sections of text are written in Aramaic
c) Greek
i) Manuscripts
(1) Papyri
(2) Siniaticus
(3) Vaticanus
d) Latin
i) Old Latin
ii) Jerome’s Latin Vulgate
e) The Canon
i) What is the canon? Kanon – measuring rod, standard.
ii) 39 OT books
iii) 27 NT books
iv) How not to think about the canon!
v) How to think about the canon.
f) Question period
XIII) The Five Solas (IV)
XIV) Sola Scriptura (V)

XV) Appendix

a) Fall of Jerusalem in 70AD – the church scatters

i) Jesus enters the temple with a controversial cleansing ()
ii) He leaves the temple with a controversial prophecy of destruction
iii) – Mark’s record is fascinating
iv) Twelve Tribes who are scattered
v) to elect exiles
vi) 1 King 9:6-9

b) Council of Nicea (northwest Asia Minor) & Constantine (325)

i) Theological Issues
(1) The nature of the Son of God
(2) Arius – Arianism (256-336)
(a) Accused Alexander of Alexandria of Sebellianism
(b) Claim: Jesus was created from nothing before the universe was made.
(3) Sebellius – Sebellianism – Modalism (late 2nd-early 3rd century)
(a) Modern Modalist – TD Jakes
(4) Athanasius – Orthodoxy (Alexander’s defender) (296-373)
(a) Bishop of Alexandria
ii) Political Issues
(1) Last major persecution of the church by Diocletian (303)
(2) Constantive’s victory over Maxentius – Milvian Bridge (312)

iii) Jerome – Latin Vulgate (347-420)

(1) Learned Hebrew as a hermit in the Syrian desert in 374
(2) Hardly any Christians knew Hebrew
(3) Pope Damasus asked him to prepare a new Latin translation of the Bible
(4) Jerome argued that Christians must only accept the books of the OT that the Jews included in their canon.
Jerome found it easy to pick a quarrel and turn it into an all-out war.

a) Council of Chalcedon 451

i) The nature of Christ – if Jesus was fully divine, God from God, of the same substance as the Father, then how was he human?
ii) Jesus is one person existing in two natures – hypostatic union

b) The Monastic Rescue – Benedictine’s Option

i) Benedict of Nursia (480-547)
ii) Educated in rhetoric and law at Rome
iii) Established a Monastery at Monte Cassino in 520
iv) Reaction against Constantinian Christianity
(1) Deals with good works, obedience, humility, prayer, excommunication, reception of guests.
(2) There was an inner passion to put off worldly passions and pursuits and to put on Christ in all humility.

c) The Great Schism

i) The Schism of 1054 should not be disconnected from a long history of disengagement and estrangement.
ii) Eastern Church – Orthodox
iii) Western Church – Catholic
iv) Schism really goes back to Tertullian of Carthage (West) and Clement of Alexandria (East)
v) One issue was how the Western (Catholic) church added “and the Son” to the Nicene Creed.
vi) A second issue was papal supremacy.
vii) There were other issues.
viii)Final breach was political – Normans were threatening both the Byzantine and Roman Empires.
(1) Constantine IX entered into an alliance with Roman emperor Henry III & Pope Leo IX.
(2) In return, Cerularius was to acknowledge the superiority of Rome over Constantinople.
(3) Cerularius refused.
This eventually would result in mutual excommunications and anathematization of each other and the final break between East and West
RELATED MEDIA
See the rest →
RELATED SERMONS
See the rest →