The Pull Of Home
Derek Kidner gives the Psalm the title ‘The Pull of Home’. ‘Longing’, he says, ‘is written all over the Psalm’. This eager and homesick man is one of the Korahite temple singers, and the mood of the Psalm is not unlike Psalms 42 and 43, which are a product of the same group.
a. Expositors Bible Commentary
This psalm contains a collage of diverse genres: hymn, prayer, lament, and a song of Zion. As to the time of composition or original life-situation, it is equally difficult to come to an agreement. The reference to the "anointed one" (v. 9) suggests that the psalm is preexilic. Its setting may reflect a festive procession to Jerusalem during one of the festivals (see Th. Booij, "Royal Words in Psalm lxxxiv 11," VetTest 36 : 117-20). The concern for the temple has suggested to others an exilic date (cf. v. 10) when the temple was in ruins. The structural elements reflect the variations in genres:
A. Longing for the Courts of the Lord Almighty (vv. 1-4)
B. The Blessing on the Pilgrims (vv. 5-7)
C. Prayer for God's Blessing on the King (vv. 8-9)
D. Hymnic Praise (vv. 10-11)
E. The Blessing of God (v. 12)
b. Derek Kidner
Psalm 84 expresses the longing of a pilgrim for the joy of participation in the worship of temple courts of Yahweh. It is a psalm for pilgrimage…festivals…
- Pilgrimages and festivals are concerned with the physical aspects of religion: journey, temple courts, feasting, liturgies, and fellowship with fellow pilgrims, etc.
- These physicals aspects have meaning because they bear spiritual realities with them. The experiences of pilgrimages and festivals stay with the worshippers when they return to everyday life. They have seen what they would never have seen had they stayed at home.
- Three times the Psalmist uses the word “blessed”: (i) once wistfully; (ii) once resolutely; and (iii) once in deep contentment. These can be our guide to exploring the movement of the Psalm.
2. The Sons of Korah
The Psalm is “a psalm for the sons of Korah” [84:1].
- Korah was a great-grandson of Levi - “Now Korah, the son of Izhar, the son of Kohath, the son of Levi…” [Num.16:1] - and was part of the rebellion against Moses in the wilderness [Num.16].
a. The Role
The Koharites appear in history with various functions:
- Levites and singers in the time of David (see קָרְחִי), to whom ten of the Psalms are ascribed, Ps. 42 (43)—49, 84, 85, 87, 88.
- They gathered together with the sword to David in Ziglag in order to defend him and his title to the throne: “the Koharites separated themselves unto David into the stronghold of the wilderness men of might, men of war fit for the battle…” [1Chr.12:6].
- They were keepers of the temple gates after the Exile: “the Koharites were over the work of the service, keepers of the gates of the tabernacle…” [1Chr.9:17].
a. The Korahitic Psalms
The distinguishing features of the Korahitic type of Psalm meet us in both Psalms [Psa.42 & Psa.43] in the most strong and vivid manner, viz., the being joyous and weeping with God’s anointed, the praise of God the King, and the yearning after the services in the holy place. And there are, it is true, thoughts that have been coined by David which we here and there distinctly hear in them (cf. Psa. 42: 2 f., 84: 3, with Psa. 63: 2); but they are reproduced with a characteristic beauty peculiar to the author himself. We do not, therefore, in the least doubt that Psalm 42 is the poem of a Korahitic Levite, who found himself in exile beyond the Jordan among the attendants of David, his exiled king.
- This Psalm 84 breathes forth the same feelings, and even in other respects bears traces of the same author; Psa. 84: 3; 42: 3; Psa. 84: 2; 43: 3; 84: 4; 43: 4; and the similar use of Psa. 84: 5; 42: 6, cf. Isa. 49:20, Jer. 32:15.
3. The Context
Zion appears only once in the Psalm but it reflects a longing for festival worship in Jerusalem and the pilgrimage of worshippers to the autumn festival.
- The great autumn festival is at hand. The long year’s toil in the field and vineyard is over, the produce of the land is gathered in, and the cycle is about to begin once more with ritual and state ceremony.
- The ground is parched, and all the wadis are dry, but the summer is nearly at an end, and almost before the feast is over the autumn rains may be expected, to soften the earth and make it once more fit for husbandry.
- From every village in the country comes a train of pilgrims and as they draw near to their journey’s end they sing a song like this.
a. Feast of Tabernacles?
The Psalm belongs to a sequence of Psalms, the Korah Collection, which express a longing to be worshipping God in his temple, and which seem to have been intended for people travelling to Jerusalem for one of the great festivals, most likely the Feast of Tabernacles.
- For an occasion like Tabernacles, people would set out on pilgrimage from every part of the country. Their own homes might be a long way from God’s home in Zion, but they had every intention of getting there, and our Psalm reads as if the author would have been among them (BST).
It is a thoroughly heartfelt and intelligent expression of the love to the sanctuary of Yahweh which yearns towards it out of the distance, and calls all those happy who have the like good fortune to have their home there.
- And wherefore should he not do so, since with him a new era for the neglected sanctuary had dawned, and the delightful services of the Lord had taken a new start, and one so rich in song? With him he shares both joy and brief. With his future he indissolubly unites his own.
- THE DISTANT HOME
1. The Longing
The Psalmist expresses a passion for the temple and the presence of Yahweh.
a. The Tabernacles
The preciousness of the tabernacle: “how amiable are thy tabernacles…” [84:1].
§ מַה־יְּדִיד֥וֹת - “amiable” [84:1], basic meaning is ‘one greatly loved’; ‘having an attractive appearance’; “Now will I sing to my well-beloved a song of my beloved touching his vineyard…” [Isa.5:1];
§ מַה - “how” [84:1], ‘an exclamation of amazed glorification’;
§ מִשְׁכְּנוֹתֶ֗יךָ - “tabernacles” [84:1], ‘tent’; ‘portable dwelling place of God’; the plural points to the multiple buildings of the temple area: “let them bring me to thy holy hill, and to thy tabernacles” [Psa.43:3].
§ יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת - “Lord of hosts” [84:1], ‘hosts, divisions’; ‘Almighty God’;
b. The Pining
The pining of the Psalmist: “my soul longs, yea, even faints…” [84:2].
§ נִכְסְפָ֬ה - “longs” [84:2], niphal perfect, ‘yearn’; ‘have a strong feeling or desire for’; “Like as a lion that is greedy of his prey…” [Psa.17:12];
§ גַם־כָּלְתָ֨ה - “faints” [84:2], qal perfect, ‘to finish, complete’; ‘to wear out or fail’; “I am weary of my crying: my throat is dried: mine eyes fail while I wait for my God” [Psa.69:2];
§ לְחַצְר֪וֹת - “courts” [84:2], ‘courtyard’; ‘outward open area’;
c. The Object of His Longing
The object of the Psalmist’s desire: “my heart and flesh cry out for the living God” [84:2].
§ לִבִּ֥י - “heart” [84:2], ‘inner being’; ‘mind, will, affections’;
§ וּבְשָׂרִ֑י - “flesh” [84:2],
§ יְ֝רַנְּנ֗וּ - “cry out” [84:2], ‘shout for joy’; ‘make a long public melody with the focus on joy’;
§ אֶ֣ל אֵֽל־חָֽי - “living God” [84:2],
§ לְאֵ֪ל חָ֥י - “living” [Psa.42:2], ‘living in contrast to the pagan deities’ OR ‘living in the sense that God is the source of life’; in the present context the latter seems more likely;
The Psalmist’s longing was in the light of spiritual and physical desires.
2. The Language of Love
a. The Longed-for Location
The Psalmist envies the birds: “yea, the sparrow has found a house…” [84:3].
§ צִפּ֨וֹר - “sparrow” [84:3], ‘birds’;
§ מָ֪צְאָה - “found” [84:3], qal perfect, ‘to discover, find out’;
§ בַ֡יִת - “house” [84:3], ‘dwelling place’;
§ וּדְר֤וֹר - “swallow” [84:3], ‘small fluttering bird’; ‘swallow’;
§ קֵ֥ן - “nest” [84:3], ‘bed, room’;
§ שָׁ֪תָה - “lay” [84:3], qal perfect, ‘to lay an object in a space’;
§ אֶפְרֹ֫חֶ֥יהָ – “young” [84:3], ‘young birds’;
b. The Altar of God
The focus of the longing: “even thine own altars…” [84:3].
§ מִ֭זְבְּחוֹתֶיךָ - “thine altars” [84:3], ‘place where gifts and sacrifices are offered to God’;
§ The altar of burnt-offerings: “altar of burnt-offering…in front of the tabernacle” [Exo.27:1-8].
§ The altar of incense: “an altar to burn incense upon…before the veil that is by the ark of the testimony…” [Exo.30:1-10].
§ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת - “Lord of hosts” [84:3],
§ מַ֝לְכִּ֗י וֵאלֹהָֽי - “my King and my God” [84:3],
§ The courtyards were open to the skies, and the temple eaves would give good nesting.
c. The Presence of God
The wistful, contemplative use of the description blessed: “blessed are they that dwell in your house…” [84:4].
§ אַ֭שְׁרֵי - “blessed” [84:4], ‘favourable circumstances and enjoyment’;
§ יוֹשְׁבֵ֣י - “dwell” [84:4], qal participle, ‘inhabit, live’;
§ בֵיתֶ֑ךָ - “your house” [84:4], ‘dwelling place’; ‘home’;
§ יְֽהַלְל֥וּךָ - “still praising you” [84:4], ‘extol the greatness or excellence of a person’;
d. The Two Homes
Note the two mentions of the word “home”, one for the sparrow [84:3] and one for God [84:4], a touch that brings out his tender hospitality; and if for the birds surely also for the servant.
§ Like the birds, the Psalmist had flit to long from place to place; he now desires the rest that they have found.
§ The temple is conceptualised as the home of God, and those who worship there are his guests: “you prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies…” [Psa.23:5-6].
This sounds once more like the language of love, where one may envy anyone or anything that has access to the distant beloved.
§ The reference must be to the nests of birds located in the crevices in the walls of the buildings or in the trees in the temple court. The birds are symbols of the life, freedom, and joy of those who dwell close to God.
§ The Psalmist yearns for a privilege like that of the birds. Driven by inner motivations to build safe nests in which they hatch their young, they seem to be at home in the confines of the temple.
§ How happy, blessed, therefore, are those who enjoy this good fortune, which he now longs for again with pain in a strange country, viz., to be able to make his home in the house of such an adorable and gracious God!
§ The altar, above all, is in his mind’s eye, for there the sacrifice is offered which deals with his sin and puts him right with God.
§ In the light of the New Testament, the Psalmist’s heart is not simply on the living God, but on the loving God, the one who provided forgiveness and renewal by the shedding of blood.
The word “blessed” sums up the musings so far on the lot of those not in exile. But we may reflect that often it is the exile that appreciates home, while the stay-at-homes find fault with it.
- THE EAGER JOURNEY
Blessing and happiness is not confined to the priests and Levites at the tabernacle/temple. If the Psalmist cannot be at Zion, he can be with God; if he cannot enjoy sweetness [84:1], he can find strength.
1. The Blessed Person
a. The Blessing
The description of the pilgrim: “blessed is the man…” [84:5].
§ אַשְׁרֵ֣י - “blessed” [84:5], ‘favourable circumstances and enjoyment’;
§ אָ֭דָם - “man” [84:5], ‘Adam’; ‘humankind’;
b. The Characteristics
i. The Strength
The first characteristic that makes him blessed: “whose strength is in you…” [84:5].
§ עֽוֹז־ל֥וֹ - “strength” [84:5], ‘power, might, i.e., a condition in which one can exert great force or withstand great force, with a focus of having ability to do what is desired, intended, or necessary’;
§ בָ֑ךְ - “in thee” [84:5], ‘in, at, or by’; ‘the source’; ‘within the boundaries of’;
ii. The Ways
The second characteristic that makes him blessed: “in whose heart are thy ways…” [84:5].
§ בִּלְבָבָֽם - “in whose heart” [84:5], ‘in the centre of their being’; ‘mind, will, affections’;
§ מְ֝סִלּ֗וֹת - “ways” [84:5], ‘main road, highway’; ‘a raised road’, and in particular, ‘a sacred way for processions’: “The highway of the upright is to depart from evil: he that keeps his way preserves his soul” [Pro.16:17].
§ An open-country thoroughfare used much and that is relatively wide and maintained’; “Prepare ye the way of the LORD, make straight in the desert a highway for our God…” [Isa.40:3];
§ In its main sense, the word carries the reminder that the way to God’s presence is not as lonely or trackless as it may seem, but well-prepared and well-frequented; contrast that with the exile: “the highways lie waste, the wayfaring man ceases…” [Isa.33:8]; “set thee up thy signposts, make landmarks: set your heart toward the highway…” [Jer.31:21].
iii. Isaiah 35
In a related passage, Isaiah 35, the prophet encourages the weak to strengthen themselves in the thought of God's presence: “strengthen the weak hands, and confirm the feeble knees…” [35:2-4].
§ The blessedness of God's presence and succor finds expression in the processional imagery of a road: “and a highway shall be there, and a way, and it shall be called the way of holiness…” [35:8].
§ There is a wilderness and the abundance of water as the people of God pass from adversity (exile) to the blessedness of his presence: “in the wilderness shall waters break out, and streams in the desert…” [35:6-7].
§ There is the goal of Zion and the place where “gladness and joy will overtake them, and sorrow and sighing will flee away” [35:10].
The Psalmist remembers the blessing of those who have to push through to Zion rather than reside there like the choirs of v.4.
§ The going up to a festival: the pilgrim-high-roads with their separate halting-places (stations) were constantly present to the mind of such persons.
2. The Path to Zion
The pilgrims are presented making their way through difficult terrain on their way to the temple.
a. The Path
The hardships of the way: “passing through the valley of Baca…” [84:6].
§ עֹבְרֵ֤י - “passing through” [84:6], qal participle, ‘to cross over, travel through’;
§ בְּעֵ֣מֶק - “valley” [84:6], ‘low graphical formation between two elevated areas’;
§ הַ֭בָּכָא - “Baca” [84:6], ‘large woody plant’; ‘balsam tree, i.e., aromatic tree’; close to the verb ‘to weep’; ‘a shrub that grows in arid places’;
b. The Faith
The faith that digs in the midst of hardships: “they make it a well…” [84:6].
§ מַעְיָ֣ן - “well” [84:6], ‘spring or fountain’; ‘source of life’;
§ יְשִׁית֑וּהוּ – “make” [84:6], qal imperfect, ‘to place’; ‘lay an object in a space’; ‘to make or establish’;
c. The Blessing of God
The sovereign blessing of God: “the rain also fills the pools” [84:6].
§ מוֹרֶֽה - “rain” [84:6], ‘autumn rains’; ‘early rains from October to December’;
§ גַּם־בְּ֝רָכ֗וֹת – “pools” [84:6], plural, the same consonants as the word ‘blessings’; ‘the green growth that springs up after the rain in such an area’;
§ יַעְטֶ֥ה - “fills” [84:6], hiphil imperfect, ‘to clothe, cover’;
§ The early rain comes and turns it into a valley of springs, clothed with blessings of revived growing plants: “the parched ground shall become a pool and the thirsty land springs of water…” [Isa.35:7].
What is spoken of in passages like Isa. 35: 7; 41:18, as being wrought by the omnipotence of God, who brings His people home to Zion, appears here as the result of the power of faith in those who, keeping the same end of their journeyings in view, pass through the unfruitful sterile valley.
§ The transformation of the valley of Baca into an oasis is ‘a classic statement of the faith which dares to dig blessings out of hardships.
§ It implies a kind of natural/spiritual transformation: natural in that a valley becomes a mountain, Zion, and spiritual in that the ascent somehow enables the worshippers to make the waters of tears into springs…In other words, the road to the temple is the objective correlative of an inner spiritual development which is crowned by a vision of God in his place on Mount Zion. The physical assent is a spiritual assent.
§ It is not unlikely that the psalmist also speaks of the highway, the Valley of Baca, and the water as metaphors of the experience of fellowship and blessedness after a prolonged period of adversity.
3. Strength for the Journey
As the Psalmist approaches the goal, the stronger the pull; the pilgrims, so far from flagging, press on more eagerly than at the start.
a. The Energy
The blessings which cover them give them new strength: “they go from strength to strength…” [84:7].
§ יֵ֭לְכוּ - “go” [84:7], qal imperfect, ‘to walk, travel’; ‘make linear motion to another place’;
§ מֵחַ֣יִל אֶל־חָ֑יִל - “from strength to strength” [84:7], ‘physical strength’; ‘ability’;
§ A process of successive steps, one building on the other: ‘from strength to strength’.
§ The New Testament equivalent: “from glory to glory as by the Spirit of the Lord” [2Cor.3:18]; “of his fullness have we received and grace for grace” [Joh.1:16].
b. The Goal
They are strengthened in the knowledge that the blessings come from Zion; they also anticipate appearing before the presence of God: “in Zion appears before God” [84:7].
§ בְּצִיּֽוֹן - “in Zion” [84:7], ‘hill in SE Jerusalem’;
§ יֵרָאֶ֖ה - “appears” [84:7], niphal imperfect, masculine singular, ‘to see, look, view’;
§ אֶל־אֱלֹהִ֣ים - “before God” [84:7],
The saints are continually acquiring fresh strength for going up to mount Zion, and continue to prosecute their journey without weariness or fatigue, until they reach the wished-for place, and behold the countenance of God.
§ Faith at a distance; faith at closer quarters; faith and love grow together with exercise.
§ Under ordinary circumstances the strength of the traveller diminishes in proportion as he has traversed more and more of his toilsome road, with them it is the very reverse;
§ They go from strength to strength, i.e., they receive strength for strength: “they that wait upon the Lord shall renew their strength…” [Isa.40:31], and that an ever increasing strength, the nearer they come to the desired goal, which also they cannot fail to reach.
- THE PRAYER
1. The Act of Prayer
The poet, who in spirit accompanies them on their pilgrimage, is now all the more painfully conscious of being at the present time far removed from this goal, and in the next strophe prays for relief: “Lord God of hosts, hear my prayer…” [84:8].
§ שִׁמְעָ֣ה - “hear” [84:8], qal imperative, ‘use perception of hearing to process information’;
§ תְפִלָּתִ֑י - “prayer” [84:8], ‘plea, request, petition’;
§ הַאֲזִ֨ינָה - “give ear” [84:8], hiphil imperative, ‘perceive, respond’;
2. The King
The psalmist now turns to the Lord in a prayer for the king.
c. The Protection
A prayer for the king who is the shield: “Behold, O God, our shield…” [84:9].
§ רְאֵ֣ה - “behold” [84:9], qal imperative, ‘see, look, view’;
§ מָ֭גִנֵּנוּ - “shield” [84:9], ‘small shield’; ‘defensive weapon that protects from attach’;
i. Scriptural Examples
The idea of “shield” is used in the Old Testament with reference to kings and to God:
§ Shield with reference to kings: “The princes of the people are gathered together, even the people of the God of Abraham: for the shields of the earth belong unto God: he is greatly exalted” [Psa.47:9]; “Their drink is sour: they have committed whoredom continually: her rulers with shame do love, Give ye” [Hos.4:18].
§ Shield with reference to God: “But thou, O LORD, art a shield for me; my glory, and the lifter up of mine head” [Psa.3:3]; “The LORD is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer; my God, my strength, in whom I will trust; my buckler, and the horn of my salvation, and my high tower” [Psa.18:2]; “scatter them by thy power; and bring them down, O Lord our shield” [Psa.59:11].
§ The covenant God: “Fear not, Abram: I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward” [Gen.15:1].
The king embodied and exercised the divine protective power: “he shall deliver the needy when he cries…” [Psa.72:12-14].
d. The Anointed One
A prayer for God’s anointed one: “look on the face of your anointed” [84:9].
§ וְ֝הַבֵּ֗ט - “look” [84:9], hiphil imperative, ‘to gaze, consider’;
§ פְּנֵ֣י - “face” [84:9], ‘front part of head’;
§ מְשִׁיחֶֽךָ - “thine anointed” [84:9], ‘a person having sacred oil poured ceremonially on one’s head, and so become a person with special authority and function, with the implication of one having the choice and approval of God’;
§ Firm, strong government in Israel guarantees the safety of travelers and the security of the temple, and facilitates the meeting.
§ We as Christians know that God does indeed “look with favour on his Anointed One”; under the kingship of Christ our access to God’s presence is guaranteed.
The prayer is for Yahweh to look with favour on the king/priest so that his reign can be established and prosper.
- The Psalmist calls God [as in Psa. 59:12], for without His protection David’s cause is lost.
- May He then behold and look upon the face of His anointed, which looks up to Him out of the depth of its reproach.
- Since the King too is dependent on the Lord's blessing, the psalmist prays that the Great King may extend his goodness to the earthly ruler.
3. The Meditation/Hymn of Praise [84:10-11]
The Psalmist meditates on the goodness of festival time with Yahweh.
a. The Superiority of Presence of God
The preciousness: “for a day in thy courts is better…” [84:10].
§ טֽוֹב־י֥וֹם - “day” [84:10],
§ בַּחֲצֵרֶ֗יךָ - “courts” [84:10], ‘courtyard’; ‘open area of construction’;
§ מֵ֫אָ֥לֶף - “thousand” [84:10], ‘from thousand’;
b. The Superiority of Serving God
The preference: “I had rather be a doorkeeper in the house of my God…” [84:10].
§ בָּחַ֗רְתִּי - “I had rather” [84:10], qal perfect, ‘to choose, select, desire’;
§ הִ֭סְתּוֹפֵף - “doorkeeper” [84:10], ‘stand guard’; ‘be a menial servant at the temple’;
§ בְּבֵ֣ית אֱלֹהַ֑י - “house of God” [84:10],
§ מִ֝דּ֗וּר - “dwell” [84:10], qal infinitive construct, ‘reside in a certain place as a living place’;
§ בְּאָהֳלֵי - “tents” [84:10], ‘tent-dwelling’; ‘household’;
§ רֶֽשַׁע - “sin” [84:10], ‘evil, wickedness’;
§ Represents an area of life which is antithetical to the house of God.
4. The Beneficence of God [84:11]
a. His Presence
The central focus of pilgrimage is Yahweh God: “for God the Lord is a sun and shield…” [84:11].
§ שֶׁ֨מֶשׁ - “sun” [84:11], ‘sun, sunlight’;
§ וּמָגֵן֮ - “shield” [84:11], ‘small shield’; ‘defensive weapon that protects from attach’;
§ The two figures picture vividly all that is outgoing and positive – light, joy, heat, energy, and all that is protective; the answer to fear and defeat.
§ The "sun" is symbolic of the era of restoration: “the sun shall be no more thy light by day…thy sun shall not go down…” [Isa.60:19-20]; “But unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in his wings…” [Mal.4:2].
b. His Gifts
The gifts of God: “the Lord will give grace and glory…” [84:11].
§ יִתֵּ֣ן - “give” [84:11], qal imperfect, ‘to place an object in the possession of another’;
§ חֵ֣ן - “grace” [84:11], ‘depicts a heartfelt response by someone who has something to give to one who has a need’; “Thou art fairer than the children of men: grace is poured into thy lips…” [Psa.45:3];
§ וְ֭כָבוֹד - “glory” [84:11], ‘to be heavy’; ‘glory, splendour, honour’; “and to thy glory afterward receive me…” [Psa.73:23].
§ The New Testament equivalents: “grace and truth came by Jesus Christ…” [Joh.1:18]; “we know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ…” [2Cor.8:9].
c. The Fullness
The fullness of His gifts: “no good thing will he withhold…” [84:11].
§ ט֝֗וֹב - “good” [84:11], ‘moral good’; ‘God’s work and order’ [Gen.1];
§ יִמְנַע - “withhold” [84:11], ‘to withhold, deny, deprive’;
§ לַֽהֹלְכִ֥ים - “walk” [84:11], qal participle, ‘to go, travel’;
§ בְּתָמִֽים - “uprightly” [84:11], ‘without defect’; ‘without blemish’; ‘blameless’;
§ The effect of his fellowship is that he will shower all his "goodness" – “goodness and mercy all my life…” [Psa.23:6]; “I will make all my goodness pass before thee…” [Exo.33:19], on those who walk in a "blameless" (tamim; see 15:2) manner.
d. The Conclusion
The final expression of deep contentment: “O Lord of hosts, blessed is the man…” [84:12].
§ אַֽשְׁרֵ֥י - “blessed” [84:12],
§ בֹּטֵ֥חַ בָּֽךְ - “trusts in you” [84:12], qal participle,
The Lord bestows "favor and honor" as expressions of his blessing. Favor is his expression of grace by which he draws near to his own and even shares his "glory" with them.
§ The key sentence for our understanding of Israel’s cultic life: “for with thee is the fountain of life; in thy light do we see light” [Psa.36:9].