Faithlife
Faithlife

04-18-07 - Fruitless Faith - James 2.14-26 - NSB

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James 2:14-26, NSB 4-18-07

TBKC – Johnny Hunt’s Book of Outlines on James, James 2:14-26, “Faith that Works” – Believer’s Bible Commentary – JFB – Wiersbe’s BE Series – KJV Bible Commentary -  The Bible Reader’s Companion – MacArthur Study Bible – Johnny Hunt’s Book of Outlines on James 2:14-26, “Funeral Home Visitation” -   The Nelson Study Bible (NKJV) -

People are unique in God’s creation.

            And what makes us unique is that we have a spirit.

And that spirit lives in this body.  What turned Adam from a lump of clay, or a corpse if you will, was that God breathed into his nostrils the breath of life (spirit).  Genesis 2:7 And Adam had a spirit – it was the part of him that was created in the image of God.

When the spirit came in the body came alive.

You knew the spirit or the life was in the body because the body was doing stuff.

Breathing – Walking through the garden – Naming all the animals – Eating from trees he was not supposed to eat from – Stuff like that

But the other side of the coin is that when the spirit and the body are separated then we are left with a corpse. (James 1:26)

            And that is what we see when we visit in the funeral homes.

You can stand there and look at that body for a long time but it is not going to move because what makes these bodies alive is not there.

See…

The body without the spirit is dead.

And in verse 26 of what we have just read, James tells us that a body without a spirit is like faith without works.

            Just as the body doing things is evidence that the spirit is in there

            So are our good works evidence that there is a real faith alive in us.

Let’s see what James has to say about two different types of faith as we walk this path from verse 14 to verse 26.

The first thing that he talks about in vv. 14-17 is:

A DEAD FAITH

- By introducing us to the professor who is not a possessor.

James 2:14 (KJV) 14What doth it profit, my brethren, though a man say he hath faith, and have not works? can faith save him? 

This verse can really confuse you because the way that it is worded in the KJV makes it look like James is calling into question whether or not faith can save this man.

Can faith save a man?

            Absolutely – Eph. 2:2-9 and others.

So, James is not asking if faith can save this man.

Listen to verse 14 from the NASB.

James 2:14 (NASB95)
14
What use is it, my brethren, if someone says he has faith but he has no works? Can that faith save him?

[1]

So, James is not asking if faith can save the man – He is asking if that faith can save him.

            What faith?  A faith that does not have works.

So, can someone be saved and not have any good works to show for it?

            Well, we will see.

Unless we look carefully we may think that he is asking if a man can be saved if he has genuine faith but not works.

           

But really that is not what he is saying -

So, we must look closer.

            James is not talking here about a man who has faith without works.

            He is talking about a man who says he has faith and he has no works.

So, the correct understanding of James 2:14 is not as the KJV reads but it is more like this:

Is genuine saving faith a faith that produces no works?

So, in this passage James is not contrasting works with faith but he is contrasting genuine faith with pretend faith.

In other words, the question before us is not a question of can genuine faith save – it can.

The question is:  What about this pretend faith?

This faith that is all talk but no walk?

Here is the deal -

Merely claiming to have faith is not enough. Genuine faith is evidenced by works.

[2]

Then, is there a type of faith that will not save us?

James tells us that there is.

H says…

If you have a faith that you are counting on to save you but it has not even changed you enough to produce good works in you then James wants to ask you a question:  “What good is it?”

Warren Wiersbe says:

“Any declaration of faith that does not result in a changed life and good works is a false declaration.”[3]

Then in vv. 15 and 16, James gives us an example of what he is taking about:

James 2:15 - 16 (KJV) 15If a brother or sister be naked, and destitute of daily food,  16And one of you say unto them, Depart in peace, be ye warmed and filled; notwithstanding ye give them not those things which are needful to the body; what doth it profit? 

Here we have someone who would…

Claim to have saving faith on the inside but their actions don’t agree with their mouth.

In these two verses there is a person who is cold and hungry.

            Now, if a person is cold and hungry guess what they need?

                        Warmth and food!

But what this person in these verses gives them is a spiritual blessing:  “Go in peace.”

And what we have here is a picture of a pretend faith that is of no value to the one who has it or to the one who is hungry and cold.

I mean if I come to your house and say I am hungry – do you know what I would like for you to do?  Feed me.

You can read the entire Gospel of John to me, but when you are finished, guess what?  I will still be hungry.

And so what James shows us is that You can have a fake faith.  A faith that does not work for others or for you.  A faith that does not do for you what you might think it will.

           

Things that don’t really do what they claim to do can be deceiving.

            Illustration:  Thermostat in children’s church.

So, our genuine faith should have something more than words that goes along with it.

Look at verse 17 –

James 2:17 (KJV) 17Even so faith, if it hath not works, is dead, being alone. 

The evidences that you are alive are many

The evidence that your faith is alive is the works it produces in you.

You are saved by faith – and…

True faith brings something with it.    It brings works.

So, what we can deduce from James is this:

Any declaration of faith that does not result in a changed life and good works is a false profession.

            It is a dead faith.

And then after he talks about a DEAD FAITH, he talks about a

Demonic Faith (James 2:18–19)

Now, that may at first sound like an oxymoron but the truth is that demons are doctrinally correct in what they believe on a great many things.

18Yea, a man may say, Thou hast faith, and I have works: show me thy faith without thy works, and I will show thee my faith by my works.

19Thou believest that there is one God; thou doest well: the devils also believe, and tremble.

            Demons are not atheists

            Demons are not agnostics

            They believe in God and the deity of Christ.

Demons are straight down the line in their beliefs and what they believe lines up almost perfectly with what Baptists believe:

            They believe that Jesus is the Son of God

Matthew 8:29 - 30 (KJV) 29And, behold, they cried out, saying, What have we to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God? art thou come hither to torment us before the time?  30And there was a good way off from them an herd of many swine feeding. 

            And they knew in Mark 5:7; Luke 4:41; Acts 19:15, as well.

           

Demons know the truth about God, Christ, and the Spirit  - They know the facts and as a matter of fact they know the facts better than we do.

IIL.  What if a demon wanted to join NSB?

            What questions would he be able to answer?

Believes in Jesus, virgin birth, resurrection, 2nd coming, hell, baptism

Is Jesus the Lord of your life?  Oh No

            Have you trusted yourself to Him?  Oh No

So…

They have a faith that is doctrinally correct but Spiritually, eternally worthless.

Now, in James, the person being addressed in these verses is asked:

            Do you believe that God is one (As all good Jews do)?

Congratulations, you now believe as much as the demons believe.

So, from a DEAD FAITH we learn that to SAY we have faith is not enough.

And from DEMONIC FAITH we learn that…

To have doctrine that is straight sown the line in many areas is not enough.

Our intellect may be touched

But the demons are touched in more than just what they know

They are also touched in their emotions.

Verse 19 says,  They believe and tremble.

            The hair stands up on the back of their neck.

            They bristle at the name of Jesus.

But it is not a saving experience to be emotional.

It is not a saving experience to believe and tremble.

You can be:

            Enlightened in the mind – stirred in the heart – lost as a duck

Because belief in God is not the same thing as trust in God.

            You will never produce good works for God until you trust God.

Because your good works are going to involve your money and your time and your children and decisions at home and on the job.

So, does genuine faith save?  Yes, yes, yes a thousand times yes..

But, James has already introduced us to two kinds of faith that can never save the sinner: Dead faith (the intellect alone) Doesn’t change your life but it gets inside your head.

Demonic faith (the intellect and the emotions). – Gets under your skin.

He closes this section by describing the only kind of faith that can save the sinner -  

Dynamic Faith (James 2:20–26)

20But wilt thou know, O vain man, that faith without works is dead?

 

James is saying to this fellow:

O Empty Headed man, don’t you know that a faith separate from the works that should come from it is a dead faith?

Useless – That is, it will not do for you what you are hoping that it will do for you.

He says, “Since you are a vain man, I will ask you if you really even want to know the truth.”

Read 1 John 3:7-10

See…

Dynamic faith is…

            Faith that results in a changed life

Dynamic means that it is doing something.

            ILL.  STATIC IMAGE VS. DYNAMIC IMAGE

So, saving faith is dynamic faith – it has works that spring forth from it.

D. L. Moody – Every Bible should be bound in shoe leather.

James’ argument is not pro-works/anti-faith or pro-faith/anti-works. He has simply said that genuine faith is accompanied by good works. Spiritual works are the evidence, not the energizer, of sincere faith.

[4]

The ESV gives a clearer understanding of verse 22.

22 You see that faith was active along with his works, and faith was completed by his works;

And then he gives the illustrations of Abraham and Rahab.

Abraham’s faith was counted to him as righteousness in genesis 15.

And James points to an event that happened in Genesis 22 where Abraham’s faith was displayed by his actions.

He was not just being obedient – He was acting in faith – the Promise was on the line

Rahab believed in the God of Israel before she hid and helped the spies sent in by Joshua.

But it was then that the works of her faith were displayed.

            Also acting in faith – Against her own country

I want you to notice particularly verse 22

James 1:4, 17, 25

What completes our faith or makes our faith perfect are the works that come out of it.

If you are a new Christian then you may not have many works in your life that reveal the genuine faith inside of you.

But, as you grow in the Lord and as these works begin to grow they will complete your faith

ACORN – This is an oak tree.  You can’t see it yet, but left to itself and the right conditions, it would give external evidence to man that it was an oak tree.  As it becomes complete and mature, there will be more and more evidence that it is an oak tree.  The evidence is not for God.  He already knows that it is an oak tree.  The leaves and the acorns will not make it an oak tree but because of what it is it will produce what it does.

As genuine faith matures, there should be fruit that others can see.

Let us pray.

************************************************************************

Faith is unseen to man –

            No man can exhibit his faith for another

            To show faith to man, works are needed.

The offering of Isaac at that time, quoted here, Jam 2:21, formed no part of the ground of his justification, for he was justified previously on his simply believing in the promise of spiritual heirs, that is, believers, numerous as the stars. He was then justified: that justification was showed or manifested by his offering Isaac forty years after. That work of faith demonstrated, but did not contribute to his justification. The tree shows its life by its fruits, but it was alive before either fruits or even leaves appeared.[5]

By faith he was justified before God and his righteousness declared; by works he was justified before men and his righteousness demonstrated.

John Calvin – It is faith alone that justifies but faith that justifies can never be alone.

She responded with her will

This may be one of the most misunderstood sections of the entire epistle. But someone will say, You have faith; I have deeds. An imaginary respondent, “someone,” was introduced. He did not object to James’ conclusion. He agreed that faith without works is dead. But he wrongly disparaged faith while stressing works (see comments on v. 19).

What follows, Show me your faith without deeds, and I will show you my faith by what I do, may be the continuation of the respondent’s words. If so, they should be included within quotation marks. (If this were James’ response to a contender’s “I have deeds,” James would have written, “Show me your deeds without faith.”) Though recent translations do not include the second half of verse 18 in the quotation of the respondent (e.g., neb, niv, rsv), the NASB correctly considers this entire verse part of his remarks. The Greek, of course, does not include quotation marks, which accounts for the variations in English. It seems, however, that the respondent is throwing down the challenge, “Show me your faith apart from (chōris, ­without¯) works, and I will show you my faith by (ek, ­emerging from¯) my works” (author’s trans.).

[6]

Many different kinds of works are named in the New Testament. “The works of the Law” (Gal. 2:16) relate to the sinner’s attempt to please God by obeying the Law of Moses. Of course, it is impossible for a sinner to be saved through the works of the Law. “The works of the flesh” (Gal. 5:19) are done by unsaved people who live for the things of the old nature. There are also “wicked works” (Col. 1:21) and “dead works” (Heb. 9:14). Where there is dynamic faith—saving faith—you will always find good works. [7]

21Was not Abraham our father justified by works, when he had offered Isaac his son upon the altar?

In other words, James is using the word justified to mean “proved.” We prove to others our genuine faith in Christ through our works. But the justification that comes through faith is before God, and we do not “prove” ourselves to Him; instead, God declares us righteous through our association with Christ, the One who died for our sins (Rom. 3:28).

[8]

At night, God showed His servant the stars and gave him a promise, “So shall thy seed [descendants] be!” How did Abraham respond? “And he believed in the Lord, and He [the Lord] counted it to him for righteousness” (Gen. 15:5–6).

The word counted is a legal or financial term; it means “to put to one’s account.” As a sinner, Abraham’s spiritual bankbook was empty. He was bankrupt! But he trusted God, and God put righteous on Abraham’s account. Abraham did not work for this righteousness; he received it as a gift from God. He was declared righteous by faith. He was justified by faith (read Rom. 4).

[9]

For several reasons, James cannot mean that Abraham was constituted righteous before God because of his own good works: 1) James already stressed that salvation is a gracious gift (1:17,18); 2) [10]

How can you tell if a person is justified by faith if this transaction takes place between the sinner and God privately? Abraham’s example answers that important question: the justified person has a changed life and obeys God’s will. His faith is demonstrated by his works. [11]

Christians, Jews, and Arabs have “declared righteous” this man of God, because of the faith demonstrated when he offered his only son.[12]

He was evidentially justified by his works.

            When he brought his offering to the altar, it revealed his trust in God.

What can this mean when we know from Genesis 15:6 that Abraham believed and the Lord accounted it to him for righteousness?

            This clearly teaches that Abraham was justified by faith.

            Now, it is all of the way over in Genesis 22 that Abraham offers up his son.

Genesis 22 was a demonstration of the changed life that Abraham experienced in Genesis 15.

                        It was a demonstration of the faith of Abraham

Was not our ancestor Abraham considered righteous for what he did when he offered his son Isaac on the altar? This question is often held to be directly opposed to Paul’s statement that Abraham’s faith, not his works, caused God to declare him righteous (Rom. 4:1-5). Paul, however, was arguing for the priority of faith. James argued for the proof of faith. Paul declared that Abraham had faith, and was therefore justified, or declared righteous (Gen. 15:6), prior to circumcision (Gen. 17:11; cf. Rom. 4:9). James explained that Abraham’s faith was evident in his practice of Isaac’s sacrifice (Gen. 22:12), and he was therefore justified, or declared righteous. Works serve as the barometer of justification, while faith is the basis for justification.

[13]

How was Abraham “justified by works” (James 2:21) when he had already been “justified by faith”? (see Rom. 4) By faith, he was justified before God and his righteousness declared; by works he was justified before men and his righteousness demonstrated.[14]

Titus 1:16 (KJV) 16They profess that they know God; but in works they deny him, being abominable, and disobedient, and unto every good work reprobate.

This event is the offering up of Isaac on the altar (Gen. 22). Abraham was not saved by obeying God’s difficult command. His obedience proved that he already was saved. “You see that his faith and his actions were working together, and his faith was made complete by what he did” (James 2:22, niv).[15]

At the time that he did this, his faith was working with his works.

23And the scripture was fulfilled which saith, Abraham believed God, and it was imputed unto him for righteousness: and he was called the Friend of God.

And this is the same Scripture that Paul quoted to make his argument

Abraham’s offering of Isaac was not a mere act of obedience, but an act of faith.[16]

When Abraham offered Isaac it was faith in action for laying there on that altar was not merely the son of Abraham but also the promise of God.

            It was through the line of Isaac that the promises to Abraham would be fulfilled.

We have no record of Abraham being called the friend of God in his lifetime.

Man is not saved by faith that has no attachment to works.

            Because works are to fruit of faith.

24Ye see then how that by works a man is justified, and not by faith only.

The only way that others can know that you have a real faith is that it is backed up by a life of good works.

James emphasized the joint role of faith and . . . actions . . . working together. Faith is the force behind the deed. The deed is the finality of the faith. The verb translated was made complete (eteleiōthē) means to “carry to the end.” Faith finds fulfillment in action. So it was with Abraham. James and Paul quoted the same passage—Genesis 15:6—to prove their points (cf. Rom. 4:3). Paul said that Abraham was justified by faith, and James said that Abraham was justified by faith evidenced by what he did.

[17]

“Pure religion” involves a life of ministry, not introspective qualities.[18]

Thus the kind of faith that justifies a person before God is a faith that expresses itself in works. Any “faith” which is not accompanied by works is not a saving kind of faith.

[19]

25Likewise also was not Rahab the harlot justified by works, when she had received the messengers, and had sent them out another way?

Rahab’s act was not an act of works – it was an act of faith

Against her countrymen and in response to the testimonies regarding the God of Israel.

The value of the works that James seems to point to here is that they were proofs of faith.

Rahab was not saved by harboring the spies.

            She was saved when she believed on the God of Israel

            But she DEMONSTRATED her faith by hiding the spies.

It would be a mistake to try and use this passage to teach that salvation comes from good works.  Unless you are willing to identify child sacrifice and treason as good works.

These two examples are all about faith.  When faith is removed then what Abraham and Rahab were going to do was actually something bad.

26For as the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without works is dead also.

Here the matter is summarized very beautifully. James compares faith to the human body. He likens works to the spirit. The body without the spirit is lifeless, useless, valueless. So faith without works is dead, ineffective, worthless. Obviously it is a spurious faith, not genuine saving faith.

To summarize, then, James tests our faith by our answers to the following questions. Am I willing like Abraham to offer the dearest thing in my life to God? Am I willing like Rahab to turn traitor to the world in order to be loyal to Christ?

[20]

The conclusion is most clear. Faith and deeds are as essential to each other as the body and the spirit. Apart from (chōris) the spirit, or the “breath” (pneumatos) of life, the body is dead. Apart from (chōris) the evidence of works, faith may be deemed dead. It is not the real thing.[21]

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

If Paul wrote to explain the Gospel then James wrote to demonstrate its practical applications.

James’ point is not that a person is saved by works (he has already strongly and clearly asserted that salvation is a gracious gift from God; 1:17,18; cf. Eph. 2:8,9), but that there is a kind of apparent faith that is dead and does not save (vv. 14,17,20,24,26; cf. Matt. 3:7,8; 5:16; 7:21; 13:18–23; John 8:30,31; 15:6).[22]

James is not combating Paul but rather he is combating those who would abuse Paul’s doctrine.

Paul himself insisted on good works

Titus 2:14 (KJV) 14Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.

Titus 3:8 says:
Titus 3:8 (KJV) 8This is a faithful saying, and these things I will that thou affirm constantly, that they which have believed in God might be careful to maintain good works. These things are good and profitable unto men.

Martin Luther said that the book of Romans deals with justification and the book of James deals with validation.

Dead Faith (James 2:14–17)

Even in the early church there were those who claimed they had saving faith, yet did not possess salvation. Wherever there is the true, you will find the counterfeit. Jesus warned, “Not every one that saith unto Me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of My Father which is in heaven” (Matt. 7:21).

People with dead faith substitute words for deeds. They know the correct vocabulary for prayer and testimony, and can even quote the right verses from the Bible; but their walk does not measure up to their talk. They think that their words are as good as works, and they are wrong.

[23]

 

“Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these My brethren, ye have done it unto Me” (Matt. 25:40). [24]

We can find all sorts of examples in the Bible concerning those who did not show their faith in their works.

Three times in this paragraph, James warns us that “faith without works is dead” (James 2:17, 20, 26). [25]

James is not downing faith – He is lifting up GENUINE faith.

That being the case, James does not contradict Paul. Both affirm that true saving faith results in a changed life as evidenced by works (Eph 2:8–10).[26]

 

15If a brother or sister be naked, and destitute of daily food,  16And one of you say unto them, Depart in peace, be ye warmed and filled; notwithstanding ye give them not those things which are needful to the body; what doth it profit?

Professing great generosity, the latter says to his poor brother, “Go and put on some clothing, and eat a good meal.” But he doesn’t raise a little finger to make this possible. What good are such words? They are positively worthless! They neither satisfy the appetite nor provide warmth for the body.[27]

For one in need of the basics of life, sentimental good wishes do little good, like the common Jewish farewell, Go, I wish you well (lit., “Go in peace,” cf. Jud. 18:6; 1 Sam. 1:17; 2 Sam. 15:9; Mark 5:34; Luke 7:50). If nothing is done to fill the pressing need for warm clothes and satisfying food, what good is it?[28]

Some nice things are said –

            Depart in peace.

To say that to be saved requires faith plus works is to deny the finished work of Jesus as being sufficient.

If we were saved by faith plus works, then there would be two saviors—Jesus and ourselves. [29]

We are not saved by a faith of works but what James is saying is that neither are we saved by a faith of words only.

            We are saved by a faith that produces something.

Faith is the root but works are the fruit.

Great claims may be made about a corpse that is supposed to have come to life, but if it does not move, if there are no vital signs, no heartbeat, no perceptible pulse, it is still dead. The false claims are silenced by the evidence.

[30]

So, he talked about a dead faith and then a…


----

[1]  New American Standard Bible : 1995 Update. LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation, 1995.

[2]John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck and Dallas Theological Seminary, The Bible Knowledge Commentary : An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1983-c1985), 2:825.

[3]Warren W. Wiersbe, The Bible Exposition Commentary, "An Exposition of the New Testament Comprising the Entire 'BE' Series"--Jkt. (Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books, 1996, c1989), Jas 2:14.

[4]John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck and Dallas Theological Seminary, The Bible Knowledge Commentary : An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1983-c1985), 2:826.

[5]Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset, A. R. Fausset et al., A Commentary, Critical and Explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments, On Spine: Critical and Explanatory Commentary. (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997), Jas 2:18.

[6]John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck and Dallas Theological Seminary, The Bible Knowledge Commentary : An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1983-c1985), 2:825.

[7]Warren W. Wiersbe, The Bible Exposition Commentary, "An Exposition of the New Testament Comprising the Entire 'BE' Series"--Jkt. (Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books, 1996, c1989), Jas 2:20.

[8]Earl D. Radmacher, Ronald Barclay Allen and H. Wayne House, The Nelson Study Bible : New King James Version, Includes Index. (Nashville: T. Nelson Publishers, 1997), Jas 2:21.

[9]Warren W. Wiersbe, The Bible Exposition Commentary, "An Exposition of the New Testament Comprising the Entire 'BE' Series"--Jkt. (Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books, 1996, c1989), Jas 2:20.

[10]John Jr MacArthur, The MacArthur Study Bible, electronic ed. (Nashville: Word Pub., 1997, c1997), Jas 2:21.

[11]Warren W. Wiersbe, The Bible Exposition Commentary, "An Exposition of the New Testament Comprising the Entire 'BE' Series"--Jkt. (Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books, 1996, c1989), Jas 2:20.

[12]KJV Bible Commentary (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1997, c1994), 2590.

[13]John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck and Dallas Theological Seminary, The Bible Knowledge Commentary : An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1983-c1985), 2:826.

[14]Warren W. Wiersbe, The Bible Exposition Commentary, "An Exposition of the New Testament Comprising the Entire 'BE' Series"--Jkt. (Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books, 1996, c1989), Jas 2:20.

[15]Warren W. Wiersbe, The Bible Exposition Commentary, "An Exposition of the New Testament Comprising the Entire 'BE' Series"--Jkt. (Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books, 1996, c1989), Jas 2:20.

[16]Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset, A. R. Fausset et al., A Commentary, Critical and Explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments, On Spine: Critical and Explanatory Commentary. (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997), Jas 2:23.

[17]John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck and Dallas Theological Seminary, The Bible Knowledge Commentary : An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1983-c1985), 2:826.

[18]KJV Bible Commentary (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1997, c1994), 2591.

[19]Larry Richards, The Bible Reader's Companion, Includes Index. (Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books, 1991), 872.

[20]William MacDonald and Arthur Farstad, Believer's Bible Commentary : Old and New Testaments (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1997, c1995), Jas 2:26.

[21]John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck and Dallas Theological Seminary, The Bible Knowledge Commentary : An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1983-c1985), 2:827.

[22]John Jr MacArthur, The MacArthur Study Bible, electronic ed. (Nashville: Word Pub., 1997, c1997), Jas 2:14.

[23]Warren W. Wiersbe, The Bible Exposition Commentary, "An Exposition of the New Testament Comprising the Entire 'BE' Series"--Jkt. (Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books, 1996, c1989), Jas 2:14.

[24]Warren W. Wiersbe, The Bible Exposition Commentary, "An Exposition of the New Testament Comprising the Entire 'BE' Series"--Jkt. (Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books, 1996, c1989), Jas 2:14.

[25]Warren W. Wiersbe, The Bible Exposition Commentary, "An Exposition of the New Testament Comprising the Entire 'BE' Series"--Jkt. (Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books, 1996, c1989), Jas 2:14.

[26]KJV Bible Commentary (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1997, c1994), 2590.

[27]William MacDonald and Arthur Farstad, Believer's Bible Commentary : Old and New Testaments (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1997, c1995), Jas 2:15.

[28]John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck and Dallas Theological Seminary, The Bible Knowledge Commentary : An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1983-c1985), 2:825.

[29]William MacDonald and Arthur Farstad, Believer's Bible Commentary : Old and New Testaments (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1997, c1995), Jas 2:17.

[30]John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck and Dallas Theological Seminary, The Bible Knowledge Commentary : An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1983-c1985), 2:825.

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