The Commandments of Pesach:
|96||To rest on the first day of Passover||Lev. 23:7|
|97||Not to do prohibited labor on the first day of Passover||Lev. 23:8|
|98||To rest on the seventh day of Passover||Lev. 23:8|
|99||Not to do prohibited labor on the seventh day of Passover||Lev. 23:8|
|108||Not to eat chametz on the afternoon of the 14th day of Nissan||Deut. 16:3|
|109||To destroy all chametz on 14th day of Nissan||Ex. 12:15|
|110||Not to eat chametz all seven days of Passover||Ex. 13:3|
|111||Not to eat mixtures containing chametz all seven days of Passover||Ex. 12:20|
|112||Not to see chametz in your domain seven days||Ex. 13:7|
|113||Not to find chametz in your domain seven days||Ex. 12:19|
|114||To eat matzah on the first night of Passover||Ex. 12:18|
|115||To relate the exodus from Egypt on that night||Ex. 13:8|
|Laws of Pascal Sacrifice|
|404||To slaughter the paschal sacrifice at the specified time||Ex. 12:6|
|405||Not to slaughter it while in possession of leaven||Ex. 23:18|
|406||Not to leave the fat overnight||Ex. 23:18|
|407||To slaughter the second paschal lamb||Num. 9:11|
|408|| To eat the paschal lamb with matzah and Marror on the night of the |
15th of Nissan
|409||To eat the second paschal lamb on the night of the 15th of Iyar||Num.9:11|
|410||Not to eat the paschal meat raw or boiled||Ex. 12:9|
|411||Not to take the paschal meat from the confines of the group||Ex. 12:46|
|412||An apostate must not eat from it||Ex.12:43|
|413||A permanent or temporary hired worker must not eat from it||Ex. 12:45|
|414||An uncircumcised male must not eat from it||Ex. 12:48|
|415||Not to break any bones from the paschal offering||Ex. 12:46|
|416||Not to break any bones from the second paschal offering||Num. 9:12|
|417||Not to leave any meat from the paschal offering over until morning||Ex. 12:10|
|418||Not to leave the second paschal meat over until morning||Num. 9:12|
|419||Not to leave the meat of the holiday offering of the 14th until the 16th||Deut. 16:4|
|420||To be seen at the Temple on Passover, Shavuot, and Sukkot||Deut. 16:16|
|421||To celebrate on these three Festivals (bring a peace offering)||Ex. 23:14|
|422||To rejoice on these three Festivals (bring a peace offering)||Deut. 16:14|
|423||Not to appear at the Temple without offerings||Deut. 16:16|
|424||Not to refrain from rejoicing with, and giving gifts to, the Levites||Deut. 12:19|
MISHNAH. ON THE EVENING [OR]1 OF THE FOURTEENTH [OF NISAN] A SEARCH IS MADE FOR LEAVEN2 BY THE LIGHT OF A LAMP.3 EVERY PLACE WHEREIN LEAVENED BREAD IS NOT TAKEN DOES NOT REQUIRE SEARCHING, THEN IN WHAT CASE DID THEY RULE, TWO ROWS OF THE WINE CELLAR [MUST BE SEARCHED]?4 [CONCERNING] A PLACE WHEREIN LEAVEN MIGHT BE TAKEN,5 BETH SHAMMAI MAINTAIN: TWO ROWS OVER THE FRONT OF THE WHOLE CELLAR;6 BUT BETH HILLEL MAINTAIN: THE TWO OUTER ROWS, WHICH ARE THE UPPERMOST.7
MISHNAH. WE HAVE NO FEAR THAT A WEASEL MAY HAVE DRAGGED [LEAVEN] FROM ONE ROOM TO ANOTHER OR FROM ONE SPOT TO ANOTHER.1 FOR IF SO, [WE MUST ALSO FEAR] FROM COURT-YARD TO COURT-YARD AND FROM TOWN TO TOWN, [AND] THE MATTER IS ENDLESS.
MISHNAH. R. JUDAH SAID: WE SEARCH [FOR LEAVEN] ON THE EVENING OF THE FOURTEENTH, AND7 IN THE MORNING OF THE FOURTEENTH, AND AT THE TIME OF REMOVAL. BUT THE SAGES MAINTAIN: IF HE DID NOT SEARCH IN THE EVENING OF THE FOURTEENTH, HE MUST SEARCH ON THE FOURTEENTH; IF HE DID NOT SEARCH IN [THE MORNING OF] THE FOURTEENTH, HE MUST SEARCH AT THE APPOINTED TIME;8 IF HE DID NOT SEARCH AT THE APPOINTED TIME, HE MUST SEARCH AFTER THE APPOINTED TIME.9 AND WHAT HE LEAVES OVER10 HE MUST PUT AWAY IN A HIDDEN PLACE, SO THAT HE SHOULD NOT NEED SEARCHING AFTER IT.
MISHNAH. R. MEir SAID: ONE MAY EAT [LEAVEN] THE WHOLE OF THE FIVE [HOURS] AND MUST BURN [IT] AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SIXTH. R. JUDAH SAID: ONE MAY EAT THE WHOLE OF THE FOUR [HOURS]. KEEP IT IN SUSPENSE THE WHOLE OF THE FIFTH, AND MUST BURN IT AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SIXTH.2 R. JUDAH SAID FURTHER: TWO UNFIT LOAVES OF THE THANKSOFFERING USED TO LIE ON THE ROOF3 OF THE [TEMPLE] IZTABA:4 AS LONG AS THEY LAY [THERE] ALL THE PEOPLE WOUld EAT [ LEAVEN]; WHEN ONE WAS REMOVED, THEY WOULD KEEP IT IN SUSPENSE, NEITHER EATING NOR BURNING [IT]; WHEN BOTH WERE REMOVED, ALL THE PEOPLE COMMENCED BURNING[THEIR LEAVEN].5 R. GAMALIEL SAID: HULLIN MAY BE EATEN THE WHOLE OF THE FOUR [HOURS] AND TERUMAH THE WHOLE OF THE FIVE [HOURS]. AND WE BURN [THEM] AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SIXTH [HOUR].6
MISHNAH. THESE ARE THE COMMODITIES WITH WHICH A MAN DISCHARGES HIS OBLIGATION ON PASSOVER:8 WITH WHEAT, WITH BARLEY, WITH SPELT, WITH RYE,9 AND WITH OATS. AND THEY DISCHARGE [IT] WITH DEMAI,10 WITH FIRST TITHE WHOSE TERUMAH HAS BEEN SEPARATED, AND WITH SECOND TITHE OR HEKDESH WHICH HAVE BEEN REDEEMED;11 AND PRIESTS [CAN DISCHARGE THEIR OBLIGATION] WITH HALLAH AND TERUMAH. BUT [A MAN CAN]NOT [DISCHARGE HIS OBLIGATION] WITH TEBEL, NOR WITH FIRST TITHE WHOSE TERUMAH HAS NOT BEEN SEPARATED, NOR WITH SECOND TITHE OR HEKDESH WHICH HAVE NOT BEEN REDEEMED. [AS TO] THE [UNLEAVENED] LOAVES OF THE THANKSOFFERING12 AND THE WAFERS OF A NAZIRITE,13 IF HE MADE THEM FOR HIMSELF,14 HE CANNOT DISCHARGE [HIS OBLIGATION] WITH THEM; IF HE MADE THEM TO SELL IN THE MARKET, HE CAN DISCHARGE [HIS OBLIGATION] WITH THEM.
MISHNAH. AND THESE ARE THE HERBS WITH WHICH A MAN DISCHARGES HIS OBLIGATION ON PASSOVER:1 WITH LETTUCE [HAZARETH]. WITH T A M K A,2 WITH H A R H A B I N A,3 WITH ENDIVES [‘ULSHIN] AND WITH MAROR.4 THE LAW IS COMPLIED WITH BY [EATING THEM] BOTH MOIST [FRESH] AND DRY, BUT NOT PRESERVED [IN VINEGAR], NOR STEWED NOR BOILED.5 AND THEY COMBINE TO THE SIZE OF AN OLIVE.6 AND YOU CAN DISCHARGE [YOUR OBLIGATION] WITH THEIR STALK[S]. AND WITH DEMAI, AND WITH FIRST TITHE THE TERUMAH OF WHICH HAS BEEN SEPARATED, AND WITH HEKDESH AND SECOND TITHE WHICH HAVE BEEN REDEEMED.7
MISHNAH. ONE MAY NOT SOAK BRAN FOR FOWLS, BUT ONE MAY SCALD IT. A WOMAN MAY NOT SOAK BRAN TO TAKE WITH HER20 TO THE BATHS,21 BUT SHE MAY RUB IT ON HER SKIN. AND A MAN MAY NOT CHEW WHEAT AND PLACE IT ON HIS WOUND, BECAUSE IT TURNS LEAVEN.
MISHNAH. FLOUR MAY NOT BE PUT INTO HAROSETH26 OR IN TO THE MUSTARD,27 AND IF HE DID PUT [IT], IT MUST BE EATEN IMMEDIATELY;28 BUT R. MEIR FORBIDS [IT]. ONE MAY NOT BOIL THE PASSOVER SACRIFICE, NEITHER IN LIQUIDS NOR IN FRUIT JUICE.29 BUT ONE MAY BASTE AND DIP IT IN THEM.30 THE WATER USED BY A BAKER MUST BE POURED OUT, BECAUSE IT PROMOTES FERMENTATION.
MISHNAH. NOW THE FOLLOWING [THINGS] MUST BE REMOVED20 ON PASSOVER: BABYLONIAN KUTAH,21 MEDIAN BEER, IDUMEAN VINEGAR, EGYPTIAN ZITHOM,22 THE DYER'S BROTH,23 COOK'S DOUGH,24 AND THE SCRIBES’ PASTE.25 R. ELIEZER SAID: WOMEN'S ORNAMENTS TOO.26 THIS IS THE GENERAL, RULE: WHATEVER IS OF27 THE SPECIES OF CORN28 MUST BE REMOVED ON PASSOVER. THESE ARE SUBJECT TO A WARNING’,29 BUT THEY DO NOT INVOLVE KARETH.
MISHNAH. [WITH REGARD TO] THE DOUGH IN THE CRACKS OF THE KNEADING TROUGH, IF THERE IS AS MUCH AS AN OLIVE IN ONE PLACE, HE IS BOUND TO REMOVE [IT]; BUT IF NOT, IT IS NULLIFIED THROUGH THE SMALLNESS OF ITS QUANTITY.13 AND IT IS LIKEWISE IN THE MATTER OF UNCLEANNESS: IF HE OBJECTS TO IT, IT INTERPOSES;14 BUT IF HE DESIRES ITS PRESERVATION,15 IT IS LIKE A KNEADING-TROUGH.16
MISHNAH. [REGARDING] ‘DEAF’ DOUGH,9 IF THERE IS [A DOUGH] SIMILAR TO IT WHICH HAS BECOME LEAVEN,10 IT IS FORBIDDEN.
MISHNAH. HOW DO WE SEPARATE HALLAH ON THE FESTIVAL [FROM DOUGH WHICH IS] IN [A STATE OF] UNCLEANNESS?19 R. ELIEZER SAID: IT MUST NOT BE DESIGNATED WITH THE NAME [OF HALLAH] UNTIL IT IS BAKED.20 THE SON OF BATHYRA SAID: LET IT [THE DOUGH] BE CAST INTO COLD WATER.21 SAID A. JOSHUA:
NOW THIS IS THE LEAVEN CONCERNING WHICH WE ARE WARNED WITH [THE INJUNCTIONS], ‘IT SHALL NOT BE SEEN , AND ‘IT SHALL NOT BE FOUND,1 BUT HE SEPARATES IT AND LEAVES IT UNTIL THE EVENING, AND IF IT FERMENTS IT FERMENTS.2
MISHNAH. R. GAMALIEL SAID: THREE WOMEN MAY KNEAD AT THE SAME TIME12 AND BAKE IN ONE OVEN, ONE AFTER THE OTHER. BUT THE SAGES RULE: THREE WOMEN MAY BE ENGAGED ON DOUGH AT THE SAME TIME,13 ONE KNEADING, ANOTHER SHAPING AND A THIRD BAKING.14 R. AKIBA SAID: NOT ALL WOMEN AND NOT ALL KINDS OF WOOD AND NOT ALL OVENS ARE ALIKE.15 THIS IS THE GENERAL PRINCIPLE: IF IT [THE DOUGH] RISES, LET HER WET16 IT WITH COLD WATER.17
MISHNAH. SI'UR20 MUST BE BURNT, WHILE HE WHO EATS IT IS NOT CULPABLE; SIDDUK21 MUST BE BURNT, WHILE HE WHO EATS IT [ON PASSOVER] IS LIABLE TO KARETH. WHAT IS SI'UR? [WHEN THERE ARE LINES ON THE SURFACE] LIKE LOCUSTS’ HORNS;22 SIDDUK IS WHEN THE CRACKS HAVE INTERMINGLED WITH EACH OTHER: THIS IS THE VIEW OF R. JUDAH. BUT THE SAGES MAINTAIN: REGARDING THE ONE AND THE OTHER,23 HE WHO EATS IT IS LIABLE TO KARETH.24 AND WHAT IS SI'UR? WHEN ITS SURFACE IS BLANCHED, LIKE [THE FACE OF] A MAN WHOSE HAIR IS STANDING [ON END].
MISHNAH. IF THE FOURTEENTH [OF NISAN] FALLS ON THE SABBATH, EVERYTHING MUST BE REMOVED1 BEFORE THE SABBATH:2 THIS IS R. MEIR'S VIEW; WHILE THE SAGES MAINTAIN: [IT MUST BE REMOVED] AT ITS [USUAL] TIME;3 R. ELEAZAR B. ZADOK SAID: TERUMAH [MUST BE REMOVED] BEFORE THE SABBATH,4 AND HULLIN AT ITS [USUAL] TIME.5
MISHNAH.HE WHO ON HIS WAY8 TO SLAUGHTER HIS PASSOVER SACRIFICE OR TO CIRCUMCISE HIS SON9 OR TO DINE AT A BETROTHAL10 FEAST AT THE HOUSE OF HIS FATHER-IN-LAW, AND RECOLLECTS THAT HE HAS LEAVEN AT HOME, IF HE IS ABLE TO GO BACK, REMOVE [IT], AND [THEN] RETURN TO HIS RELIGIOUS DUTY,11 HE MUST GO BACK AND REMOVE [IT]; BUT IF NOT, HE ANNULS IT IN HIS HEART. [IF HE IS ON HIS WAY] TO SAVE [PEOPLE] FROM HEATHENS12 OR FROM A RIVER OR FROM BRIGANDS13 OR FROM A FIRE OR FROM A COLLAPSE [OF A BUILDING], HE ANNULS IT IN HIS HEART.14 [BUT IF] TO APPOINT A SABBATH STATION FOR A VOLUNTARY [SECULAR] PURPOSE,15 HE MUST RETURN IMMEDIATELY. SIMILARLY, HE WHO WENT OUT OF JERUSALEM AND RECOLLECTED THAT HE HAD HOLY FLESH WITH HIM,16 IF HE HAS PASSED SCOPUS,17 HE BURNS IT WHERE HE IS;18 BUT IF NOT, HE RETURNS AND BURNS IT IN FRONT OF THE TEMPLE19 WITH THE WOOD OF THE [ALTAR] PILE.20 AND FOR WHAT [QUANTITY] MUST THEY RETURN? R. MEIR SAID: FOR BOTH,21 WHEN THERE IS AS MUCH AS AN EGG; R. JUDAH SAID: FOR BOTH, WHEN THERE IS AS MUCH AS AN OLIVE; BUT THE SAGES RULE: HOLY FLESH, [THE STANDARD IS] AS MUCH AS AN OLIVE; WHILE LEAVEN, [THE STANDARD IS] AS MUCH AS AN EGG.2
MISHNAH. WHERE IT IS THE CUSTOM TO DO WORK ON THE EVE OF PASSOVER UNTIL MIDDAY ONE MAY DO [WORK]; WHERE IT IS THE CUSTOM NOT TO DO [WORK], ONE MAY NOT DO [WORK]. HE WHO GOES FROM A PLACE WHERE THEY WORK TO A PLACE WHERE THEY DO NOT WORK, ON FROM A PLACE WHERE THEY DO NOT WORK TO A PLACE WHERE THEY DO WORK, WE LAY UPON HIM THE RESTRICTIONS OF THE PLACE WHENCE HE DEPARTED AND THE RESTRICTIONS OF THE PLACE WHITHER HE HAS GONE;
MISHNAH. WHERE IT IS THE PRACTICE TO SELL SMALL CATTLE28 TO HEATHENS, ONE MAY SELL; WHERE IT IS THE PRACTICE NOT TO SELL,29 ONE MAY NOT SELL. AND IN ALL PLACES ONE MAY NOT SELL LARGE CATTLE TO THEM, [NOR] CALVES OR FOALS, WHETHER SOUND OR MAIMED.30 R. JUDAH PERMITS IN THE CASE OF A MAIMED [ONE].31 THE SON OF BATHYRA PERMITTED IT IN THE CASE OF A HORSE.32 WHERE IT IS THE CUSTOM TO EAT ROAST [MEAT] ON THE NIGHT OF PASSOVER, ONE MAY EAT[IT]; WHERE IT IS THE CUSTOM NOT TO EAT [IT],33 ONE MAY NOT EAT [IT].
MISHNAH. BUT THE SAGES MAINTAIN,6 IN JUDEA THEY USED TO DO WORK ON THE EVE OF PASSOVER UNTIL MIDDAY, WHILE IN GALILEE THEY DID NOT WORK AT ALL. [AS FOR] THE NIGHT,7 — BETH SHAMMAI FORBID [WORK], WHILE BETH HILLEL PERMIT IT UNTIL DAYBREAK.
MISHNAH. R. MEIR SAID: ANY WORK WHICH HE BEGAN BEFORE THE FOURTEENTH, HE MAY FINISH IT ON THE FOURTEENTH; BUT HE MAY NOT BEGIN IT AT THE OUTSET ON THE FOURTEENTH, EVEN IF HE CAN FINISH IT [ON THE SAME DAY]. BUT THE SAGES MAINTAIN: THREE CRAFTSMEN MAY WORK ON THE EVE OF PASSOVER UNTIL MIDDAY, AND THESE ARE THEY: TAILORS, HAIRDRESSERS, AND WASHERMEN. R. JOSE B. R. JUDAH SAID: SHOEMAKERS TOO.18
MISHNAH. ONE MAY SET UP CHICKEN-HOUSES FOR FOWLS ON THE FOURTEENTH,7 AND IF A [BROODING] FOWL RAN AWAY,8 ONE MAY SET HER BACK IN HER PLACE; AND IF SHE DIED, ONE MAY SET ANOTHER IN HER PLACE. ONE MAY SWEEP AWAY FROM UNDER AN ANIMAL'S FEET ON THE FOURTEENTH,9 BUT ON THE FESTIVAL10 ONE MAY REMOVE [IT] ON A SIDE [ONLY].11 ONE MAY TAKE UTENSILS [TO] AND BRING [THEM BACK] FROM AN ARTISAN'S HOUSE, EVEN IF THEY ARE NOT REQUIRED FOR THE FESTIVAL.
MISHNAH. THE [AFTERNOON] TAMID1 IS SLAUGHTERED AT EIGHT AND A HALF HOURS2 AND IS OFFERED AT NINE AND A HALF HOURS.3 ON THE EVE OF PASSOVER4 IT IS SLAUGHTERED AT SEVEN AND A HALF HOURS AND OFFERED AT EIGHT AND A HALF HOURS, WHETHER IT IS A WEEKDAY OR THE SABBATH. IF THE EVE OF PASSOVER FELL, ON SABBATH EVE [FRIDAY], IT IS SLAUGHTERED AT SIX AND A HALF HOURS AND OFFERED AT SEVEN AND A HALF HOURS, AND THE PASSOVER OFFERING AFTER IT.5
MISHNAH. IF A MAN SLAUGHTERED THE PASSOVER SACRIFICE FOR ANOTHER PURPOSE,21 AND HE CAUGHT [THE BLOOD] AND WENT AND SPRINKLED IT FOR ANOTHER PURPOSE;22 OR FOR ITS OWN PURPOSE AND FOR ANOTHER PURPOSE; OR FOR ANOTHER PURPOSE AND FOR ITS OWN PURPOSE;23 IT IS DISQUALIFIED. HOW IS ‘FOR ITS OWN PURPOSE AND FOR ANOTHER PURPOSE’ MEANT? IN THE NAME OF THE PASSOVER SACRIFICE [FIRST] AND [THEN] IN THE NAME OF A PEACE-OFFERING. ‘FOR ANOTHER PURPOSE AND FOR ITS OWN PURPOSE’ [MEANS] IN THE NAME OF A PEACE-OFFERING [FIRST] AND [THEN] IN THE NAME OF THE PASSOVER-OFFERING.
MISHNAH. IF HE KILLED IT FOR THOSE WHO CANNOT EAT IT OR FOR THOSE WHO ARE NOT REGISTERED FOR IT, FOR UNCIRCUMCISED PERSONS OR FOR UNCLEAN PERSONS, IT IS UNFIT. [IF HE KILLED IT] FOR THOSE WHO ARE TO EAT IT AND FOR THOSE WHO ARE NOT TO EAT IT, FOR THOSE WHO ARE REGISTERED FOR IT AND FOR THOSE WHO ARE NOT REGISTERED FOR IT, FOR CIRCUMCISED AND FOR UNCIRCUMCISED, FOR UNCLEAN AND FOR CLEAN PERSONS, IT IS FIT. IF HE KILLED IT BEFORE MIDDAY, IT IS DISQUALIFIED, BECAUSE IT IS SAID, [AND THE WHOLE ASSEMBLY . . . SHALL KILL IT] AT DUSK.7 IF HE KILLED IT BEFORE THE [EVENING] TAMID, IT IS FIT, PROVIDING THAT ONE SHALL STIR ITS BLOOD UNTIL [THAT OF] THE TAMID IS SPRINKLED;8 YET IF IT WAS SPRINKLED,9 IT IS FIT.
MISHNAH. HE WHO SLAUGHTERS THE PASSOVER OFFERING WITH LEAVEN [IN HIS POSSESSION]11 VIOLATES A NEGATIVE COMMAND.12 R. JUDAH SAID: [ALSO] THE [EVENING] TAMID TOO.13 R. SIMEON SAID: [IF HE SLAUGHTERS] THE PASSOVER OFFERING [WITH LEAVEN] ON THE FOURTEENTH FOR ITS OWN PURPOSE, HE IS LIABLE [TO PUNISHMENT]; [IF] FOR A DIFFERENT PURPOSE, HE IS EXEMPT.14 BUT [FOR] ALL OTHER SACRIFICES,15 WHETHER SLAUGHTERED FOR THEIR OWN PURPOSE OR FOR A DIFFERENT PURPOSE, HE IS EXEMPT. [BUT IF HE SLAUGHTERS THE PASSOVER SACRIFICE WITH LEAVEN] ON THE FESTIVAL, IF FOR ITS OWN PURPOSE, HE IS EXEMPT; IF FOR A DIFFERENT PURPOSE, HE IS LIABLE;16 BUT [FOR] ALL OTHER SACRIFICES [SLAUGHTERED ON THE FESTIVAL WITH LEAVEN], WHETHER FOR THEIR OWN PURPOSE OR FOR ANOTHER PURPOSE, HE IS LIABLE,17 EXCEPT [IN THE CASE OR] A SIN-OFFERING WHICH HE SLAUGHTERED FOR A DIFFERENT PURPOSE.18
The First Passover is known as the “Egyptian” Passover. Deuteronomy 16:2 establishes the eternal Pesach where one would sacrifice in the place where HaShem has put His name. What is interesting is in Numbers 9 there is a Pesach sacrifice in the second month as well. The Torah says that some men had become impure by a corpse and wanted to participate in the Passover. HaShem told Moshe that they could observe the Passover in the second month on the 14 day.
As you can see there are a lot of laws concerning the Passover. The Torah speaks of three things, the pesach lamb, matzah, and bitter herbs. Where, then, did the seder come from? Obviously the seder we partake of today is different than that of the days of the Second Temple.
The origins of the Seder go back to the description of the first Passover in Egypt, 2. but the tradition was not continuous as there was a long period when Pesach was not observed at all and had to be reintroduced by King Josiah. 3. In Temple times the first night of Passover was observed in family groups by the roasting and eating of a lamb. This took place in the courts of the Temple in Jerusalem and was observed in this way until the temple was destroyed in 70CE. Jerusalem was crowded at Passover by Jews from distant places.4. The home Seder presumably dates from the time of Yohanan ben Zakkai (late 1st. Century CE) who said that as long as the Temple stood, the altar atoned for Israel, but now a man's table atones for him,5. meaning that Judaism had to carry on by religious observances in the home.
Much of the ritual and prayers of the Seder were already in existence by about 210 CE. For there was a detailed description of these written in the Mishnah.6. Most of the present day seder is defined in the Mishnah. However during Talmudic times the text was not completely fixed, as it was still being discussed by Rav* and Samuel.7. Additions and alterations were being made to the "traditional" Haggadah until 16th. century when Chad Gadya was included in the songs at the end. More recently, the Yiddish song Almachtiger Got has virtually disappeared from printed Haggadot in the last century.
* Rav Abba Arika
Rav was a descendant of a distinguished Babylonian family which claimed to trace its origin to Shimei, brother of King David (Sanhedrin 5a; Ketubot 62b). His father, Aibo, was a brother of Chiyya, who lived in Palestine, and was a highly esteemed scholar in the collegiate circle of the patriarch Judah I. From his associations in the house of his uncle, and later as his uncle's disciple and as a member of the academy at Sepphoris, Rav acquired such an extraordinary knowledge of traditional lore as to make him its foremost exponent in his native land. While Judah I was still living, Rav, having been duly ordained as teacher—though not without certain restrictions (Sanhedrin 5a)—returned to Babylonia, where he at once began a career that was destined to mark an epoch in the development of Babylonian Judaism.
Today there are, as you know, many different haggadot. And the major purpose today is the telling of the story and the symbolism of the seder, mirrors that of the Exodus and the Temple sacrifices.
One of the most tedious of the commandments of Passover, is the search for chametz. For a great article on searching from chametz click here.
2556 חָמוּץ, חָמֵץ, חָמֵץ, חָמֵץ [chamets /khaw·mates/] v. A primitive root; TWOT 679, 680, 681; GK 2786 and 2806 and 2807 and 2808; Eight occurrences; AV translates as “leavened” five times, “cruel” once, “dyed” once, and “grieved” once. 1 to be leavened, be sour. 1a (Qal) to be leavened. 1b (Hiphil) to taste something leavened. 1c (Hithpael) to be embittered, grieved. 2 to be cruel, oppress, be ruthless. 3 to be red.
2557 חָמֵץ, מַחְמֶצֶת [chametz /khaw·mates/] n m. From 2556; TWOT 679a; GK 2809 and 4721; 11 occurrences; AV translates as “leaven” five times, “leavened bread” four times, and “leaven” twice. 1 the thing leavened, leaven.
However, the word for leaven in Exodus is sehor
7603 שְׂאֹר [sâ’or /seh·ore/] n m. From 7604; TWOT 2229a; GK 8419; Five occurrences; AV translates as “leaven” five times. 1 leaven.
7604 שָׁאַר [sha’ar /shaw·ar/] v. A primitive root; TWOT 2307, 2308; GK 8636; 133 occurrences; AV translates as “leave” 75 times, “remain” 46 times, “remnant” four times, “let” three times, “rest” twice, and translated miscellaneously three times. 1 to remain, be left over, be left behind. 1a (Qal) to remain. 1b (Niphal). 1b1 to be left over, be left alive, survive. 1b1a remainder, remnant (participle). 1b2 to be left behind. 1c (Hiphil). 1c1 to leave over, spare. 1c2 to leave or keep over. 1c3 to have left. 1c4 to leave (as a gift).
Harpers Bible Dictionary
leaven, a fermenting agent (like yeast), which in biblical times was normally added to a batch of bread dough by using an unbaked portion of dough from the previous batch. However, the custom of nomads was to eat unleavened bread and evidence of this is found in the ot (Gen. 19:3; Judg. 6:19; 1 Sam. 28:24, which perhaps represent occasions of special bedouin hospitality).
Leavened bread was prohibited in sacrifices that went on the altar (Lev. 2:4). The reason for this was that no leaven could be burned, nor could honey (Lev. 2:11). These both caused fermentation and thus appeared to have a life of their own that must not be destroyed. So leaven is the vital force of the vegetable world as blood is of the animal, which also was forbidden to be burnt. Leavened bread was permitted for the thank offering (Lev. 7:13) and for the first fruits of the wheat harvest (Lev. 23:7), but these were not burned on the altar (Lev. 7:14). To understand Amos 4:5, it should be noted that the word there commonly translated ‘offer’ properly means ‘burn.’
The Feast of Unleavened Bread owes its name to the fact that all leaven was avoided during its seven days (Exod. 12:15). Scholars believe that originally this feast was distinct from Passover. It was an agricultural celebration, first observed in Palestine (Josh. 5:11-12) and probably adopted from the Canaanites. It marked the gathering of the first crop and so a new beginning. Therefore only the newly reaped grain was eaten, with no leaven from the previous year’s harvest in it. Later, however, when Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread had been combined, the eating of unleavened bread was interpreted as a memorial of what had happened at the Exodus (Exod. 13:7-8).
In rabbinical literature, leaven was viewed as causing decay and so became a symbol of evil and the corruption of human nature. This idea is reflected in the nt in Jesus’ sayings about the leaven of Pharisees, Sadducees, and Herod (Mark 8:15 and parallels) and in Paul’s attack on Corinthian laxity and Galatian circumcising (1 Cor. 5:6-8; Gal. 5:9). But the positive concept of leaven as a powerful life-force also appears in Jesus’ parable of the growth of the kingdom (Matt. 13:33; Luke 13:20-21)
As we have learned earlier, leaven is also symbolic of sinful behavior. The Torah teaches that those in the community that transgress the commandments of G-d should be cut off. This was so that the entire community did not become infected with those behaviors. HaShem told the Israleites that when they take the promise land to destroy all those who occupy it, why, because their sin would infect His chosen. In the same way was the command to destroy Amalek, and to destroy all the idols. HaShem knew they would prove to be a stumbling block for His holy nation.
So not only must we go through our own homes and search everywhere for leaven. But on a more spiritual level, we must search out the leaven in out lives. Things that distract us from G-d and doing His will. We all have leaven, and even a tiny crumb will eventually spread to the whole batch.
The commandment to observe this eternally, is of great importance. One thing must be stated. G-d;s Word, His Torah, His Commandments, are for His creation. And He created everything. G-d’s law, His instruction is for all mankind.
The Passover, is a remembrance of our deliverance from slavery in Egypt. It is also a reminder that HaShem delivers us daily from our personal enslavement of sin.
Communion, Eucharist, Lord’s Supper, and Passover.
Matthew 26:17-30 tells of Yeshua, celebrating Passover with his talmidim or disciples.
v.20. Yeshua was reclining…. This is the traditional way to eat the Passover meal. In Exodus, G-d told the Israelites to eat with their cloak tucked in, staff in hand and sandals on, because they had to be ready to leave Egypt. Now because G-d has delivered us from slavery, we eat in a realaxed, reclining manner.
v 23. ..dipped his hand…. During the Passover seder, in is tradition to wash hands in a bowl before eating.
v. 26. took bread, and gave thanks probably the ha’motzi and said, “take eat, this is my body”…The interesting part of this that in Hebrew the word for body is basar, which is also the Hebrew word for the good tidings or “Good News”.
The Greek word is soma which translates typically as body, but comes from the Greek root word sozo, which means to save, make whole, heal. This would seem to be the same meaning as the basar or the Good News. Maybe Yeshua was saying Take Eat this is the healing or the Good News.
v. 27 took the cup, gave thanks probably the Kiddush, said, “this is my blood…”
The most popular Hebrew word for blood is dawm. But there is another that is very interesting as well. It is shehayr, which comes from the same root as the word for leaven comes from, sha’ar. Is Yeshua telling us that he is the Passover Lamb?
The Hebrew word for covenant is bariyth, which come from the root word barah which means to eat.
Luke 22 also tells the story of the Passover meal. The interesting part of this is that the Greek word for suffer is pascho, and the Greek word for Passover is pascha.
Yehsua, is telling his talmidim, throughout the entire meal it seems, that the Passover meal and he are intertwined.
The Greek word for bread, is artos it’s from the root airo which means to take away, or to bear.
v v: verb
TWOT Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament
AV Authorized Version
n n: noun
m m: masculine
n n: noun
m m: masculine
TWOT Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament
AV Authorized Version
v v: verb
Strong, James: The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible : Showing Every Word of the Test of the Common English Version of the Canonical Books, and Every Occurence of Each Word in Regular Order. electronic ed. Ontario : Woodside Bible Fellowship., 1996, S. H7603
ot Old Testament
nt New Testament