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S211-021008 Ro 1d

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Romans 1a

Saul a Benjamite named after the King, Shǎ-ool ~ שָׁאוּל

Jew by birth and education

       Greek by culture

             Roman by citizenship

Born in Tarsus of Cilicia in about 1 A.D., Paul was from a well-to-do family and as was customary he was trained in the family business - as a tent maker.

Pau~lov means little and was his Gentile name.

Paul studied under Sanhedrin Elder Gamaliel, grandson of Pharisee founder Hillel.

Born                          ±     1 A.D.

Jerusalem                        20

Conversion                      34

Tarsus                             37

Antioch                            42

Famine                            44

1st                                    47-48

Council                            49

2nd                                   50-53

3rd                                    54-58

Caesarea                         58-60

Rome                               60-62

Death                               67

Romans stands first in every list…

Augustine, John Chrysostom, Calvin, Luther and Wesley

On his way to Spain, Paul plans to stop in Rome.

Probably several churches were in Rome

It is evident that Peter was not in Rome at that time

Phoebe of Cen-chre-a

The city of Rome was founded in 753 B.C. on the Tiber River at a ford that was indispensable for traveling between northern and southern Italy. The 7 hills surrounding the Tiber River valley provided hilltop fortifications for times of attack. In Paul’s day, Rome had a population of approximately one million (the largest city in the world) and was the political hub of the vast Roman Empire.

A Jewish colony existed in Rome after 63 B.C., when Judea became a part of the Roman Empire, this colony grew. By 59 B.C. Cicero wrote of it as powerful and influential.

 

At times the Jews suffered expulsion from Rome, as in 19 A.D. due to financial scandal

 

Suetonius: Claudius expelled all Jews from Rome ‘because they were constantly rioting at the instigation of Chrestus’ in 49 A.D., Priscilla and Aquila had come to Corinth (Acts 18:2). Nero 54 A.D. with Seneca and Prefect Burrus helping he was an excellent Emperor until 59 A.D.

Textual variants in chapters 14–16 as Origen 200 said, was due to Marcion

A possibility is that Paul took the opportunity in this letter to the Romans to rehearse the speech he was going to give when he arrived in Jerusalem with the collection.

If all of the Bible were lost except Romans, scarcely any fundamental doctrine would be lacking.

Paul quoted from the OT more often than in all his other letters combined—showing how important the OT is to understanding the gospel.

Romans shows the root of salvation: faith alone. James shows the fruit of salvation: good works.

If by faith alone, what is to keep a person from going out and sinning as much as he pleases? Doesn’t God care about righteousness anymore?

This is how Paul’s teaching affected many in New Testament times too. How could faith be enough?

In Galatians we catch glimpses of themes that Paul now fully develops.

To most people now as then, Law and righteousness seem inseparably linked.

In his letter Paul fully answered the objections of the people of his day, and he answers the doubting of our time.

Law from the beginning was intended to serve as a mirror, to reveal sin. The Law was not a standard we must struggle to achieve, but a measure against which we might discover how far short we each fall.

The Old Testament introduced the principle of a justification that comes by faith. Abraham and David are examples of men who were called righteous by God not on the basis of their good deeds, but because they trusted in His Word. As David said, “Create in me a clean heart.”

God’s acts are “always righteous” (Jer. 12:1), for all God does is in harmony with His character.

God, as the Creator and the moral Judge of the universe, is Himself the one valid standard of what is right.

Righteousness is not to be measured by what a person does or does not do. As Peter said, “You know I love You.”

1Paul, a bond-servant of Christ Jesus, called as an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God

    Pau~lov dou~lov Cristou~ Ijhsou~,

       A Jew can never be the slave of anyone other than God.

       My life no longer belongs to me!!!!

 

       Called to be… & Set apart…

    eujagge>lion qeou~  Gospel of God

 

2which He promised beforehand through His prophets in the holy Scriptures

    grafai~v aJgi>aiv  Holy Scriptures

 

3concerning His Son, who was born of a descendant of David according to the flesh

 

    sa>rx  Flesh

 

4who was declared the Son of God with power by the resurrection from the dead, according to the Spirit of holiness, Jesus Christ our Lord

 

    ajnasta>sewv nekrw~n  Resurrection, not        revivification!

      

       The actual impact of the Greek is, acknowledged as   the one true Son-of-God-in-power according to the       Holy Spirit because of the resurrection – so Jesus the Christ is our true Lord.

      

5through whom we have received grace and apostleship to bring about the obedience of faith among all the Gentiles for His name’s sake

 

    uJpakoh<n pi>stewv  Result of hearing is believing and      behaving accordingly Obedience of faith

 

      uJpe<r on behalf of… or for the benefit of… His Name

 

6among whom you also are the called of Jesus Christ; 7to all who are beloved of God in Rome, called as saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

 

    klhtoi~v aJgi>oiv  Called as saints Elect or more     accurately selected to be separate from the rest.

8First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, because your faith is being proclaimed throughout the whole world.

       Thankful to God through, dia<, Jesus as mediator.

       The fact that people had bowed the knee to Christ in            the capital city was significant for the cause of Christ   around the world.

9For God, whom I serve in my spirit in the preaching of the gospel of His Son, is my witness as to how unceasingly I make mention of you,

       Serve is latreu>w, meaning to worship (LXX of priestly     service). Paul’s ministry work is an act of worship.

       Paul’s worship through service is ultimately spiritual –     flowing from his changed heart not as a religious duty.

10always in my prayers making request, if perhaps now at last by the will of God I may succeed in coming to you.

       Obviously a strong desire to visit Rome, but only in   accord with God’s perfect will.

11For I long to see you so that I may impart some spiritual gift to you, that you may be established;

       Paul did not mean he would grant the Roman church spiritual gifts. The context here is that Paul will hopefully       encourage the believers in Rome – move them closer to God with the spiritual gift or gifts required.

       These gifts can be: Prophecy, serving, teaching,      encouraging, giving, leadership, mercy, wisdom,       knowledge, faith, healing, wonders, discernment,      tongues, interpretation, apostles, evangelists and pastors (Romans 12, 1 Corinthians 12, Ephesians 4).

      

12that is, that I may be encouraged together with you while among you, each of us by the other’s faith, both yours and mine.

       Through the gifts already given by God, the apostle and the Romans would encourage and edify each other   and ultimately serve God’s purpose; win-win-win spiral.

 

13I do not want you to be unaware, brethren, that often I have planned to come to you (and have been prevented so far) so that I may obtain some fruit among you also, even as among the rest of the Gentiles.

       Turf concerns of Paul indicate that no other Apostle had made it to Rome yet. He alludes to the same thing in     15:22.

14I am under obligation both to Greeks and to barbarians, both to the wise and to the foolish.

       Paul knew he had been set apart for personal        salvation and the gospel of God leading to his deep      conviction that given such a privilege he was now in       debt to all men, that is, to preach the gospel to them.

15So, for my part, I am eager to preach the gospel to you also who are in Rome.

       Summary verse…

16For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek.

       Paul was not ashamed of the gospel for it has the power    to bring anyone into a right relationship with God      through Christ at the moment they believe in God’s       saving action in Christ.

       The Jew first is not temporal, but one of priority for the   promises of salvation through God’s messiah were first    given to the Jew (2 Sam 7:8-16).

17For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith; as it is written, “But the righteous man shall live by faith.”

       The word “for” takes us back to the preceding idea      about the gospel being the power of God for salvation.     How is that so? Paul knows that the gospel saves    because it reveals the righteousness of God.

       God creates, allows freedom of will and provides       salvation because of His righteous character.

       From faith to faith has been variously interpreted        throughout the history of the church:

       1) it refers to the faith of the OT saints to the faith of NT   saints;

       2) from an immature faith to a more mature one;

       3) from a Law-oriented faith to a gospel-oriented faith;

       4) from the faith of the preacher to the faith of the hearers;

       5) from present faith to a future faith;

       6) from God’s faithfulness to man’s faith

       7) sheer faith and faith alone.

       All these have some truth in them, but our daily prayer answers the question in its final phrase. our faith must     grow – you either move forward or backward – you’re     either in the desert 40 days or 40 years i.e. until you     die!

Realistic Comprehension of Grace produces a thankfulness that is manifested as a zeal for God’s glorification.

The power of God for salvation to everyone who believes is the righteousness of God

And it is revealed from faith to faith.

18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men who suppress the truth in unrighteousness,

       The righteousness of God is tied to His wrath - He       must do both or neither.

       There cannot be salvation if there’s nothing to be   saved from!

       Mark 3:5 ~ Jesus entered a synagogue and        there was a man whose hand was withered. The Pharisees were watching Him to see if He would heal him on the      Sabbath, so that they might accuse Him. Jesus said to them, “On the Sabbath is it lawful to do good or evil, to    save a life or to kill?” But they kept silent.

       5After looking around at them with anger, grieved at     their hardness of heart, He said to the man, “Stretch out      your hand.” And he stretched it out, and his hand was     restored.

      

       The Pharisees went out and immediately began        conspiring to kill Jesus

    ojrgh, is not punishment of sin but God’s attitude       towards it – Frustration over people destroying    themselves and keeping others in the same boat.

             By destroying the Light = metaphor for Truth

       The truth here is not the gospel; it is the 1st Truth –

       John 1:4&5, 9-11 ~ 4In Him was life, and the life was  the Light of men. 5The Light shines in the darkness, and    the darkness did not comprehend it.

       9There was the true Light which, coming into the world,     enlightens every man. 10He was in the world, and the    world was made through Him, and the world did not       know Him. 11He came to His own, and those who were       His own did not receive Him.

       comprehend = kate>laben – forcefully hold down or       destroy – also apprehend or acquire (overcome RSV,     extinguish NLT, put out TM ~~~ understood NIV,     comprehend NASB & KJV ~~~ mastered NET,      apprehend DARBY & ASV)

19because that which is known about God is evident within them; for God made it evident to them.

        

       evident within them = in their hearts and conscience.

       All mankind is inherently religious

20For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse.

       What a paradox, invisible things which are visible.

       Man, able to reason on the basis of the law of cause   and effect is forced to the conclusion that such a   tremendous effect as the universe, demands a Being of eternal power and of divine attributes. That Being must    be the Deity who should be worshipped.

       1 Corinthians 2:9 (quoting Isaiah) but just as it is    written,

       “Things which eye has not seen and ear has not heard,

       And which have not entered the heart of man,

       All that God has prepared for those who love Him.”

       Hebrews 11:1 Now faith is the assurance of things    hoped for, the conviction of things not seen.

    qeio>thv, means Godhead as in divine, not a personal      God and is used by Paul of Jesus in Colossians 2:9,       “For in Him all the fullness of Deity dwells in bodily      form.”

       He can be recognized by creation - His divine        attributes, His majesty and glory can be known from His      works,

        but He can be understood or known personally only       through the revelation of Himself in Jesus.

      

       Mars Hill, a]reiov pa>gov, Areopagus

        Although Corinth was the actual capital of Achaia (uh-kay-yuh) Athens     was the cultural capital of the whole ancient world.

        Academy of Plato b427, (Socrates b470 council condemned 399)

        Lyceum (Lie-see-um) of Aristotle b384

        Porch or Stoa of Zeno 300

        Garden of Epicurus 300

       

       Acts 17:23-28 ~ 23“For while I was passing through and        examining the objects of your worship, I also found an altar with this inscription, ‘TO AN UNKNOWN GOD.’   Therefore what you worship in ignorance, this I proclaim   to you. 24“The God who made the world and all things in it, since He is Lord of heaven and earth, does not dwell       in temples made with hands; 25nor is He served by        human hands, as though He needed anything, since He      Himself gives to all people life and breath and all things;       26and He made from one man every nation of mankind to live on all the face of the earth, having determined their appointed times and the boundaries of their    habitation, 27that they would seek God, if perhaps they   might grope for Him and find Him, though He is not far      from each one of us; 28for in Him we live and move and  exist, as even some of your own poets have said, ‘For        we also are His children.’

       Thus, through the light of the created universe, unsaved       man recognizes the fact that there is a God who      deserves obedience, respect, thanks, love and       adoration.

       Psalm 19:1The heavens proclaim the glory of God. The     skies display his craftsmanship.

      

       Without excuse literally means without a defense       because there is no acceptable, reasonable explanation.

Romans 1:21-25 ~ 21For even though they knew God, they did not honor Him as God or give thanks, but they became futile in their speculations, and their foolish heart was darkened. 22Professing to be wise, they became fools, 23and exchanged the glory of the incorruptible God for an image in the form of corruptible man and of birds and four-footed animals and crawling creatures. 24Therefore God gave them over in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, so that their bodies would be dishonored among them. 25For they exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.

21For even though they knew God, they did not honor Him as God or give thanks, but they became futile in their speculations, and their foolish heart was darkened.

       timh> & qeo>v

       Cause and effect… reject God and your cogitating or       deliberating with yourself becomes futile or without        achieving anything of value.

       Proverbs 9:10“The fear of the Lord is the beginning of       wisdom, and knowledge of the Holy One is   understanding.

22Professing to be wise, they became fools,

       Fools is mwrai>nw, moron

       Vain thinking is the nou~v, mind, spirit.

             Foolish heart is kardi>a, will, soul, yuch>.

                    Fools (act foolishly) is body, soma> sa>rx

       Everyone thinks that they are wise and yet anyone claiming such things is a fool.

       Proverbs 18:2A fool does not delight in understanding,   but only in revealing his own mind.

23and exchanged the glory of the incorruptible God for an image in the form of corruptible man and of birds and four-footed animals and crawling creatures.

       Incorruptible is without decay/change. Descending        order of idols ~ Satan is depicted as a serpent.

24Therefore God gave them over in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, so that their bodies would be dishonored among them.

       paradi>dwmi, hand over to entrust to the care of another. To the natural course – cause & effect.

       God’s sovereign choice is to allow people to choose!

       Lusts is epiqumi>a a passionate irresistible craving,        longing or desire of the heart, i.e. the place of will, not the mind.

       People play mind-games, but this desire is who we are       and cannot be easily resisted – it is by definition a     predisposition or addiction.

       It’s not how God made you! It is the depravity you        wallow in and can be broken by right relationship with God.

       Most Gays either reject Christianity altogether or change    it to be an abomination – either way they reject God’s        revealed Truth, the only thing that can save them, and go deeper into the jungle.

25For they exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.

       Creature can be creation in general to include        everything from the tree hugger religion to Carl Sagan-  Esq. astrophysics.

       Creature can refer to idols.

       Ultimately the creature worshipped is self.

Romans 1:26-32 ~ 26For this reason God gave them over to degrading passions; for their women exchanged the natural function for that which is unnatural, 27and in the same way also the men abandoned the natural function of the woman and burned in their desire toward one another, men with men committing indecent acts and receiving in their own persons the due penalty of their error. 28And just as they did not see fit to acknowledge God any longer, God gave them over to a depraved mind, to do those things which are not proper, 29being filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, greed, evil; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malice; they are gossips, 30slanderers, haters of God, insolent, arrogant, boastful, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents, 31without understanding, untrustworthy, unloving, unmerciful; 32and although they know the ordinance of God, that those who practice such things are worthy of death, they not only do the same, but also give hearty approval to those who practice them.

26For this reason God gave them over to degrading passions; for their women exchanged the natural function for that which is unnatural,

       Female and later male, not women and men.

       Men full of testosterone and drunk with power mistreated   women

             Women’s Liberation

                    Birth control

                           Promiscuity

                                 Abortion

                                        Divorce and now we’ll all pay.

       God has given us over to pa>qov, even more intense.

       Pathology is now the study of disease, but it was        originally the study of passion and some passion is pain   and suffering brought on by disease.

       A person’s passion is consuming – you can’t just turn       it off!

27and in the same way also the men abandoned the natural function of the woman and burned in their desire toward one another, men with men committing indecent acts and receiving in their own persons the due penalty of their error.

       Sexual use of females and “intensely burned

       Actually Men in men – indecent is ajschmosu>nh,       meaning disfigured/deformed not normal and in this      sense shameful because it didn’t happen to you, you are doing it to yourself.

       Men abandon family responsibility and act like kids.

       Recompense i.e. payday has come and is coming.

28And just as they did not see fit to acknowledge God any longer, God gave them over to a depraved mind, to do those things which are not proper,

       See fit to acknowledge is dokima>zw, which means to     examine or put to the test.

       Man tested God and found Him wanting.   

       Man declared God unfit and that judgment leads to a        hardened conscience where eventually anything goes

29being filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, greed, evil; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malice; they are gossips,

       All kinds of anti-God behavior

       ponhri>a, evil, wicked or mean.

       pleonexi>a, avarice; pursuing money.

       kaki>a, bad or evil.

       fqo>nov, jealousy or envy.

       fo>nov, murder.

       e]riv, strife, discord, argument.

       do>lov, treachery, deceit, trickery.

       kakoh>qeia, malice or spite.

       yiquristh>v, gossip

30slanderers, haters of God, insolent, arrogant, boastful, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents,

      

       kata>lalov, slanderer, defamer, insulting.

       qeostugh>v, God-hater.

       uJbristh>v, abuser, mistreating others.

       uJperhfa>nouv, prideful, arrogant.

       ajlazw>n, boastful, braggart.

       ejfeureth>v kako>v, inventor or contriver of evil.

       goneu>v ajpeiqh>v, to parents - disobedient

31without understanding, untrustworthy, unloving, unmerciful;

       ajsu>netov, dull or foolish.

       ajsu>nqetov, faithless, unreliable.

       a]storgov, without familial love, heartless.

       ajneleh>mwn, ruthless, merciless.

32and although they know the ordinance of God, that those who practice such things are worthy of death, they not only do the same, but also give hearty approval to those who practice them.

       Everyone has a conscience even if it is so dulled it        seems to be nonexistent.

       Hearty approval is the result of relative righteousness.

       I don’t feel too guilty if everyone else is doing the same     or similar things.

       I don’t have to fear God’s wrath if I’m basically a good   person… relative to others.

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