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Joy Builds Up, Wisdom sees you through

Notes & Transcripts

=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'>James 1:1-8 

" James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ,

To the twelve tribes in the Dispersion:

Greetings.

 Count it all joy, my brothers,

when you meet trials (the crucible) of various kinds,

for you know that the testing of your faith produces steadfastness (heroic endurance).

  And let steadfastness have its full effect,

that you may be perfect and complete (forged), lacking in nothing.

  If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask God,

who gives generously to all without reproach,

and it will be given him.

 But let him ask in faith, with no doubting,

for the one who doubts is like a wave of the sea

that is driven and tossed by the wind.

For that person must not suppose that he will receive anything from the Lord;

he is a double-minded man, unstable in all his ways." (James 1:1-8, ESV)[1]

"Ἰάκωβος θεοῦ καὶ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ δοῦλος

James (Nominative Absolute) servant of God and Lord Jesus Christ

ταῖς δώδεκα φυλαῖς ταῖς ἐν τῇ διασπορᾷ

to the twelve tribes in the dispersion

χαίρειν.

Greetings (Epistolary Infinitive)

Πᾶσαν χαρὰν ἡγήσασθε, ἀδελφοί μου,

Begin to consider (aorist constative imperative) it all joy, my brothers

ὅταν πειρασμοῖς περιπέσητε ποικίλοις,

whenever (temporal conjunctive) you fall (constative aorist) into various trials

γινώσκοντες ὅτι τὸ δοκίμιον ὑμῶν τῆς πίστεως κατεργάζεται ὑπομονήν.

For you know (verbal participle) that (object of participle) the testing of our faith continually brings about [or creates] (Continuous Present) patient endurance

δὲ ὑπομονὴ ἔργον τέλειον ἐχέτω,

for patient endurance must continually have (present continuous imperative) its complete work

ἵνα ἦτε τέλειοι καὶ ὁλόκληροι ἐν μηδενὶ λειπόμενοι.

In order that (purpose clause) you all are perfect and complete, lacking in nothing

Εἰ δέ τις ὑμῶν λείπεται σοφίας,

For (1st Class conditional) if anyone lacks wisdom [and they do]

αἰτείτω παρὰ τοῦ διδόντος θεοῦ πᾶσιν ἁπλῶς

Let him continually ask [for he must] (present continuous imperative) from God who gives all wisdom generously

καὶ μὴ ὀνειδίζοντος καὶ δοθήσεται αὐτῷ.

and he will give (future) to him also without reproaching

αἰτείτω δὲ ἐν πίστει μηδὲν διακρινόμενος·

but let [he must ask] him ask (continuous imperative) in faith while not doubting

γὰρ διακρινόμενος ἔοικεν κλύδωνι θαλάσσης ἀνεμιζομένῳ καὶ ῥιπιζομένῳ.

For the one who doubts is like (intensive perfect) a billow of the sea who is tossed and driven

μὴ γὰρ οἰέσθω ἄνθρωπος ἐκεῖνος

Let that man [That man must] never suppose (present continuous imperative) 

(ὅτι λήμψεταί τι παρὰ τοῦ κυρίου,)

 That (direct object of indirect discourse) he will receive (future) anything from the Lord,

ἀνὴρ δίψυχος, ἀκατάστατος ἐν πάσαις ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτοῦ.")

He is (ellipsis – eimi) a double-minded man, unstable in all his ways

(James 1:1-8, NA27 w/GRAMCORD)[2]

Word Study:

Vs. 2: περιπέσητε : to encounter at hazard, fall in with, fall into : b. fig. of discomfiting circumstances – suffer torture

v. 2: πειρασμοῖς: an attempt to learn the nature or character of someth., test, trial[3] - διὰπειρασμόν τινα because you are being tried in some way Hm 9:7. Perh. Js 1:2 and 1 Pt 1:6 belong here (cp. Pind., O. 4, 22 διά πειρά τοι βροτῶν ἔλεγχο=trial is the test of mortals; sim. N. 3, 70f).

ποικίλοις : pert. to existence in various kinds or modes, diversified, manifold

v.3 κατεργάζεται; ① the process or means of determining the genuineness of someth., testing, means of testing (Dionys. Hal., Rhet. 11, 1; Herodian 2, 10, 6; Plut., Mor. 230b; Περὶ ὕψους 32, 5 γλῶσσα γεύσεως δοκίμιον; Pr 27:21) τὸ δ. ὑμῶν τῆς πίστεως κατεργάζεται ὑπομονήν the testing of your faith (temptation) produces endurance Js 1:3.

Illustration no.1 for the intro:

One morning the plates and cups and bowls on the table were empty. But there was no food in the larder, and no money to buy food. Not a morsel for a mouse was in the cupboard.  As was the custom in all his orphanages, the children were gathered, standing, waiting patiently for their morning meal, George Mueller spoke up and said, "Children, you know we must be in time for school." So, Lifting his hand he said, "Dear Father, we thank Thee for what Thou art going to give us to eat." Never did he have any doubt that God would listen to his prayer for the morning meal for the children.  Mr. Mueller had long since learned to trust God for provision, but now God’s timeliness seemed behind.  In one short moment of prayer the Lord would have to provide.  No sooner had he said the “amen” than there was a knock on the door.

The baker stood there, and said, "Mr. Mueller, I couldn't sleep last night. Somehow I felt you didn't have bread for breakfast and the Lord wanted me to send you some. So I got up at 2 a.m. and baked some fresh bread, and have brought it." Mueller thanked the man and had the bread distributed to the children. No sooner had the bread been broken than there was a second knock at the door. There on the street stood the milkman. He announced that his milk cart had broken down right in front of the Orphanage, and he would like to give the children his cans of fresh milk so he could empty his wagon and repair it.  Mr. Mueller thanked him and praised God quietly for breakfast.

We all would agree that God sovereignly provided the bread and milk for Mueller.  But in practice when God provides our milk and bread we often find ourselves asking “where’s the butter.”

Illustration No. 2:  The only way to get a diamond like faith is to have joy in hellish like suffering

Illustration Fact: Pg 5 Daniel M. Doriani, “James is the early Jerusalem church leader who has a passion for the Mosaic Law (Acts 15:21) and for peacemaking (Acts 15:28-29)

Illustration Fact:  While we could theologically highjack Paul to make ourselves feel less sinful in the formulation of our view of grace, we would be quickly slapped back into place with a brief reading of James.

James is the pearl of ethic that adorns the halo of grace. 

James is the wisdom of Proverbs from the mouth of Jesus. 

James is the power of godly living through the Spirit that crushes the slavery of lawlessness. 

James is the crushing hammer on the imaginations of easy believ-ism.  Re-word

James is the hammer the straight path of righteousness without the heady arguments to justify carnality.  Similar to above but reword

If ever we thought our sin was acceptable, let us look quickly to James and thereby repent of our foolishness.

 James is the great boundary protecting the believer from carnal excuses developed from theological jargon.

James views the full gauntlet of life, whether suffering pain, wealth or despair as the foundation for enduring faith.

v.2 is a hermeneutic for understanding the work of God in the crucible of life.  James views God as the active agent of wisdom (v.5).  This is not the hermeneutic of the councilor.  James is not providing comfort but commanding attitude.


 

Greek Paragraph Flow:

1 Ἰάκωβος θεοῦ καὶ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ δοῦλος

ταῖς δώδεκα φυλαῖς ταῖς

(ἐν τῇ διασπορᾷ)

 χαίρειν.

2 Πᾶσαν χαρὰν ἡγήσασθε,

ἀδελφοί μου,

     ὅταν πειρασμοῖς περιπέσητε ποικίλοις,

    3 γινώσκοντες

             ὅτι τὸ δοκίμιον ὑμῶν τῆς πίστεως κατεργάζεται ὑπομονήν.

 

4 δὲ ὑπομονὴ ἔργον τέλειον ἐχέτω,

   ἵνα ἦτε τέλειοι καὶ ὁλόκληροι

                      (ἐν μηδενὶ λειπόμενοι.)

 

5 Εἰ δέ τις ὑμῶν λείπεται σοφίας,

αἰτείτω

   (παρὰ τοῦ διδόντος θεοῦ πᾶσιν ἁπλῶς)

                                          καὶ μὴ ὀνειδίζοντος

                                               καὶ δοθήσεται αὐτῷ.

 

6 αἰτείτω δὲ (ἐν πίστει)

                               μηδὲν διακρινόμενος·

γὰρ διακρινόμενος

   ἔοικεν κλύδωνι θαλάσσης

       ἀνεμιζομένῳ

       καὶ ῥιπιζομένῳ.

  

    7 μὴ γὰρ οἰέσθω ἄνθρωπος ἐκεῖνος

                        ὅτι λήμψεταί τι

       (παρὰ τοῦ κυρίου,)

             8 ἀνὴρ δίψυχος,

ἀκατάστατος

       (ἐν πάσαις ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτοῦ.)[4]


 

English Paragraph Flow

1 James,

      a servant of God

      and of the Lord Jesus Christ,

To the twelve tribes

(in the Dispersion)

Greetings.

 

2 (You) Count it all joy,  [aorist imperative]

     my brothers,

 

   when you meet trials

   (of various kinds,)

 

  3 for you know

     that the testing of your faith

         produces steadfastness.

 

4 And let steadfastness have its full effect,  [present imperative]

that you may be perfect

                                                and complete,

                                                 lacking in nothing.

 

5 If any of you lacks wisdom, 

                let him ask God, [present imperative]

                                                                       who gives generously to all

                   without reproach,

and it will be given him.

 

                        6 But let him ask [present imperative]

                        (in faith,) 

                        with no doubting,

 

                        for the one who doubts

is like a wave of the sea

 that is driven

 and tossed

(by the wind.)

 

7 For that person must not suppose [present imperative]

that he will receive anything       

                                    (from the Lord;)

 

8 he is a double-minded man, 

[He is] unstable

(in all his ways.)[5]


 

Πᾶσαν χαρὰν ἡγήσασθε, ἀδελφοί μου,

Begin to count (aorist constative imperative) it all joy, my brothers

ὅταν πειρασμοῖς περιπέσητε ποικίλοις,

whenever (temporal conjunctive) you fall (constative aorist) into various trials

γινώσκοντες (ὅτι τὸ δοκίμιον ὑμῶν τῆς πίστεως κατεργάζεται ὑπομονήν.)

For you know (verbal participle) that (object of the participle) the testing of our faith continually brings about [or creates] (Continuous Present) patient endurance

δὲ ὑπομονὴ ἔργον τέλειον ἐχέτω,

for patient endurance must continually have (present continuous imperative) its complete work


ἵνα ἦτε τέλειοι καὶ ὁλόκληροι ἐν μηδενὶ λειπόμενοι.

In order that (purpose clause) you all are perfect and complete, lacking in nothing

       Εἰ δέ τις ὑμῶν λείπεται σοφίας,

      For (1st Class conditional) if anyone lacks wisdom [and they do]

αἰτείτω παρὰ τοῦ διδόντος θεοῦ πᾶσιν ἁπλῶς

Let him continually ask [for he must] (present continuous imperative) from God who gives all wisdom (ellipses) generously

καὶ μὴ ὀνειδίζοντος καὶ δοθήσεται αὐτῷ.

and he will give (future) to him also without reproaching

αἰτείτω δὲ ἐν πίστει μηδὲν διακρινόμενος·

but let [he must ask] him ask (continuous imperative) in faith while not doubting

γὰρ διακρινόμενος ἔοικεν κλύδωνι θαλάσσης ἀνεμιζομένῳ καὶ ῥιπιζομένῳ.

For the one who doubts is like (intensive perfect) a billow of the sea who is tossed and driven

μὴ γὰρ οἰέσθω ἄνθρωπος ἐκεῖνος

Let that man [That man must] never suppose (present continuous imperative) 

(ὅτι λήμψεταί τι παρὰ τοῦ κυρίου,)

That (direct object of indirect discourse) he will receive (future) anything from the Lord,

ἀνὴρ δίψυχος, ἀκατάστατος ἐν πάσαις ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτοῦ.")

He is (ellipsis – eimi) a double-minded man, unstable in all his ways


 

Exegetical Outline

 

CPT: Count all trials as joy that one might be steadfast in faith and complete in wisdom rather than a doubter who is double-minded and unstable.

James 1:1-8 commentary:

1.       Vs 1.  James the Just the half-brother of Jesus and the leader of the church in Jerusalem.  He was known for his righteousness, had trouble believing his brother in the early days, and is a part of the Jerusalem council that acknowledged the work of Paul among the Gentiles.

a.        He writes to those, both Jew and Greek probably but with a definite Semitic flavor, who are near Palestine.  He probably, however, anticipates a broad audience.

b.       He has an affection for the Law without a commitment to the cultic observance.

c.        His approach is prophetic, proverbial and pastoral

d.       He makes no claim to authority and gives a simple and inviting greeting.

e.       He is a servant to Christ Jesus and of God

f.         James is noted by Foxe as a praying man of worn and numbed knees (having knees like a camel) from having interceded for the sin of the people.  He is known as a righteous man or as the “protector of the people” (Foxe 10)

2.       Vs. 2.  James commands as an attitude, joy in facing all sorts of trials

a.        The use of the aorist constative imperative here is the obvious header for the coming exhortation.  This usage implies an immediate change of attitude and the obedience to the command from a subordinate soldier.  He could not have been more forceful

                                                               i.      The command comes in contrast to the notion of invitation.  James is not inviting the brothers to change emotionally, psychologically or behaviorally but rather to obey.

                                                              ii.      The imperative implies volitional change

                                                            iii.      James is stating the attitude the believer should approach suffering with

1.       Namely, accept trials as beneficial to the solidity of faith (v2b)

2.       Namely, view trial as the working of God’s wisdom (v5)

b.       The time for this attitude is at the time of the trial. “when you meet trials, count them all joy – or complete joy

c.        Trials are big or small and of whatever nature

                                                               i.      The use of trials (περιπέσητε) with the qualification of “various” means of any sort of suffering without regard to intensity. (fig. face the crucible)

1.       Another word is crucible

2.       The context of the book with a focus on rich and poor may indicate a more definite financial trial – perhaps passive poverty or active impoverishing from a concerted effort to oppress the financial condition of the church.

3.       Trials (περιπέσητε) can also point to physical torture or suffering – which may be implicit, but is not apparently in full view.

                                                              ii.      Various (ποικίλοις) is a simple word without theological implication defining the broad nature of the trials.  Literally – any trial

3.       Vs. 3. The testing of faith produces steadfastness (ὑπομονήν) (fig. produces heroic endurance)

a.        They were familiar with the idea as would any who were familiar with the trial of Job or Proverbs or of the teaching of Jesus.  The etymology of the word points toward a sense of heroic endurance

b.       Steadfastness has the sense of enduring even as Christ endured. Jesus is the model of this type of steadfastness in the face of trial.

c.        To endure without charging God with wrongdoing.

                                                               i.      Complaining

                                                              ii.      Grumbling

4.       Vs. 4. Steadfastness is the ongoing process of Christian maturity.  How long shall we suffer?  Until we reach the fullness of the perfect man!

a.        Steadfastness has a dual purpose:

                                                               i.      It makes one perfect

1.       Perfection is the “full-blown character of stable righteousness, [which] is the virtue of the righteous man.”

                                                              ii.      It makes one complete –which is connected to the idea of perfection at its completion.  The framing here is of eschatological completion with temporal process.

                                                            iii.      Steadfastness in hardship trains the character and the whole person

b.       The completing purpose of steadfastness is that you are one who lacks nothing (λειπόμενοι)

                                                               i.      The word (λειπόμενοι) ties vs4 to vs5 which is a passive verb (λείπεται)

                                                              ii.      So literally, the purpose of steadfastness is to make us lack nothing in wisdom (vs5)

                                                            iii.      Passive tense implies God’s activity

c.        Without hardship your faith will be incomplete – place later

5.       Many lack (λείπεται) wisdom (but not the one who is trained through trials to have steadfast faith) and they should ask God

a.        And James expects that some do. – the conditional construction is definite of this

b.       Wisdom or σοφίας is “the possession of the believer given by the Spirit that enables him to see history from the divine perspective.’[6]

c.        God gives wisdom generously

                                                               i.      Proverbs 2 must be in view here.

"yes, if you call out for insight and raise your voice for understanding, if you seek it like silver and search for it as for hidden treasures, then you will understand the fear of the Lord and find the knowledge of God. For the Lord gives wisdom; from his mouth come knowledge and understanding; he stores up sound wisdom for the upright; he is a shield to those who walk in integrity," (Proverbs 2:3-7, ESV)[7]

                                                              ii.      Only God gives wisdom.

1.       The Scripture throughout is clear that wisdom has no other source than God.

2.       Jesus is the Wisdom of God (1 Cor. 1:24).

                                                            iii.      God gives generously (ἁπλῶς) simply meaning without reservation and without strings attached

                                                          iv.      Generously or simply or sincerely: “God is, then, one who gives sincerely, without hesitation or mental reservation. He does not grumble or criticize. His commitment to this people is total and unreserved: they can expect to receive. In so arguing James is surely dependent upon sayings of Jesus such as the “Q” saying in Lk. 11:13: “If you then, who are evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will the heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him” (par. Mt. 7:7–8). God gives sincerely to his children who ask. In fact, he will even give the Holy Spirit or divine wisdom. Here is the picture of the truly good father.”*[8]

d.       God does not reproach those who request or those who ask for Wisdom

                                                               i.      God does not turn away from those who cry out for wisdom

1.       Proverbs 1:23-26

"If you turn at my reproof, behold, I will pour out my spirit to you; I will make my words known to you. Because I have called and you refused to listen, have stretched out my hand and no one has heeded, because you have ignored all my counsel and would have none of my reproof, I also will laugh at your calamity; I will mock when terror strikes you," (Proverbs 1:23-26, ESV)[9]

                                                              ii.      God does not give wisdom with reluctance (ὀνειδίζω:) He Gives without any sense of remorse

a.        There are times as parents when our kids are so demanding and persistent that we give in just to keep them happy.  I give but with reproach.

b.       There are times when we do favors for folks that we really wish we hadn’t agreed to.  We give but with reproach. – belongs in the homiletic outline

e.       God will give him wisdom

                                                               i.      This comes as the divine response to prayers

                                                              ii.      This comes with certainty as a father gives faithfully to a child.

6.       Imperative that the one who asks, asks believing in the one who gives

a.        Asking and doubting questions the nature of the one who gives.

                                                               i.      The doubt in view is one that doubts either the capacity of God to give or the willingness of God to give wisdom.  The major emphasis is on the latter.  Thus the doubter doubts God’s character.

                                                              ii.      The one who doubts: He is “ διακρινόμενος… a man whose allegiance wavers” (Ropes) or “one who lives in an inner conflict between trust and distrust of God” (Mussner). [10]

b.       The offense of doubtful asking is likened to the waves of the sea pushed by any and every force

                                                               i.      Doubting of this kind is a problem with the asker not with the giver.  It is contemptible to believe that God would be unfaithful.

                                                              ii.      Classic Hellenistic image of the sea

                                                            iii.      The doubter is lacking a consideration of joy in the trial.  He sees the trial as the insufficiency of God

7.       Their belief lacks sincerity (vs 5) unlike God who gives generously (vs. 5).

a.        The man is deluded, God is the “Ever-Faithful”

b.       The doubter is treating God the way the pagan’s do, as a talisman to get his own desires.

8.       The man is double-minded because he doubts and unstable because of his lifestyle

a.        Double-minded makes reference to an insincere faith

                                                               i.      Perhaps denotes a man who uses God

                                                              ii.      Not wholly devoted to the fear of God but one who loses his steadfastness

b.       Unstable in his ways

                                                               i.      Focuses on his whole lifestyle and way of life

                                                            ii.      He experiences only vacillation in “activity and conduct”


 

Homiletic Outline: James 1:1-8

Introduction

A.      Illustration – toilet???

B.      Background comments on James – Author, Place, Genre/Subject – 2 min tops

C.      (vs 1.)James offers a subtle and humble introduction to himself

Joy is in what the crucible produces; it is future hope latent in the present heart

A.      (vs. 2) Exegetical remarks – Aorist Imperative; Choose this attitude

B.      Joy is the attitude in which we face all sorts of trial

a.       The trials are probably financial but also refer to any type

b.      The end is the joy of the now

c.       Matt 5:12 “12 iRejoice and be glad, for your reward is great in heaven, for jso they persecuted the prophets who were before you. [11]

C.      You must see life in the now in light of your reward in heaven

Life is the crucible from which steadfast faith emerges,

A.      (vs. 3) Exegetical remarks – “testing of faith” – is the crucible, makes for “steadfastness” – heroic endurance

B.      Though I face trial – I endure; though I have a hard semester – I endure; though I face financial trial - ; though the bills are do and the bank is empty - ; though the church is fighting and the deacons are attacking - ; though I feel unable to preach - ; though my health is bad - ; Though I feel insufficient, abandoned, helpless and hopeless - ; though the pain of my loss is overwhelming and the things I lack are countless – though I am unable and weak – yet I endure! 

C.      (vs.4 ) How long shall we endure the crucible?  Until we reach the fullness of the perfect man!  That day is death

1.       Illustration of James the Just: James is noted by Foxe as a praying man of worn and numbed knees (having knees like a camel) from having interceded for the sin of the people.  He is known as a righteous man or as the “protector of the people” (Foxe 10)

2.       Crucibles are made of clay and stone – they incase the metal to be melted

Wisdom comes from God to those who ask without doubting guiding one through the trial.

A.      (vs. 5-8) Passive Particple (lacking – v4) connected to passive verb (lacks – v5),

a.       Conditional statement expects that some do lack

b.      Jesus is the Wisdom of God in Paul and personified in OT Proverbs

B.      God’s attitude in giving is simple and generous.  He gives with no reservation.

C.      The attitude of the petitioner is one of faith

a.       “When my children ask” Illustration

b.      Expectation of wisdom is implied

D.      Ask in faith without doubting – imperative

a.       Diakpinomenos is a man “whose allegiance wavers” or “one who lives in an inner conflict between trust and distrust of God”

b.      Like the waves he is pushed by every influence

c.       The offense is in asking God as an idol worshiper would ask God – thinking that God can be ignored in one manner and appeased in the next.

d.      This man sees the trial as the insufficient nature of God

E.       Application

a.       The man is double minded – lit. he is of insincere faith. Is your faith sincere.  Are you like the wise man who asks or the doubter who crumbles in adversity

                                                               i.      You crumble because you view God wrongly, you want to use God

                                                             ii.      You cave because you run from adversity – stay and endure, anchor your attitude, view the goal

b.      He is unstable – lit. he is of uncertain path

                                                               i.      The whole lifestyle reflects your wavering attitude – you meet trial and say God is leading you another direction, you feel unsatisfied so you justify your expenses, you feel insignificant so you manufacture a “calling”

                                                             ii.      Your path vacillates in activity and conduct.  You lack a stable character

Conclusion

A.      Restate: Joy comes now and later, but it is the product of final victory; Life is the crucible from which steadfast faith emerges; Wisdom is the guide

B.      How we move forward : Repentance

C.      Final illustration: ??? only if needed – My dream of wrestling with the bear


 

Special Words:

Steadfastness: or a sense of heroic endurance

Trials: The crucible

Perfection: “Perfection,” meaning a full-blown character of stable righteousness, is the virtue of the righteous man.[12]

Wisdom: Wisdom, then, is the possession of the believer given by the Spirit that enables him to see history from the divine perspective.[13]

Generously or simply or sincerely: “God is, then, one who gives sincerely, without hesitation or mental reservation. He does not grumble or criticize. His commitment to this people is total and unreserved: they can expect to receive. In so arguing James is surely dependent upon sayings of Jesus such as the “Q” saying in Lk. 11:13: “If you then, who are evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will the heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him” (par. Mt. 7:7–8). God gives sincerely to his children who ask. In fact, he will even give the Holy Spirit or divine wisdom. Here is the picture of the truly good father.”*[14]

The one who doubts: He is “ διακρινόμενος… a man whose allegiance wavers” (Ropes) or “one who lives in an inner conflict between trust and distrust of God” (Mussner). [15]


----

[1]  The Holy Bible : English Standard Version. Wheaton : Standard Bible Society, 2001

[2]  Aland, Barbara ; Aland, Kurt ; Black, Matthew ; Martini, Carlo M. ; Metzger, Bruce M. ; Wikgren, Allen: The Greek New Testament. 4th ed. Federal Republic of Germany : United Bible Societies, 1993, c1979

someth. someth. = something

[3]Arndt, William ; Danker, Frederick W. ; Bauer, Walter: A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. 3rd ed. Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 2000, S. 793

[4]Aland, Barbara ; Aland, Kurt ; Black, Matthew ; Martini, Carlo M. ; Metzger, Bruce M. ; Wikgren, Allen: The Greek New Testament. 4th ed. Federal Republic of Germany : United Bible Societies, 1993, c1979, S. 588

[5] The Holy Bible : English Standard Version. Wheaton : Standard Bible Society, 2001, S. Jas 1:1-8

[6]Davids, Peter H.: The Epistle of James : A Commentary on the Greek Text. Grand Rapids, Mich. : Eerdmans, 1982, S. 72

[7]  The Holy Bible : English Standard Version. Wheaton : Standard Bible Society, 2001

* See further Brandt, 189–201; Daniélou, 362–365.

[8]Davids, Peter H.: The Epistle of James : A Commentary on the Greek Text. Grand Rapids, Mich. : Eerdmans, 1982, S. 73

[9]  The Holy Bible : English Standard Version. Wheaton : Standard Bible Society, 2001

[10]Davids, Peter H.: The Epistle of James : A Commentary on the Greek Text. Grand Rapids, Mich. : Eerdmans, 1982, S. 73

i Acts 5:41; Rom. 5:3; 2 Cor. 12:10; Col. 1:11, 24; Heb. 10:34; James 1:2; 1 Pet. 4:13

j See ch. 21:35

[11] The Holy Bible : English Standard Version. Wheaton : Standard Bible Society, 2001, S. Mt 5:12

[12]Davids, Peter H.: The Epistle of James : A Commentary on the Greek Text. Grand Rapids, Mich. : Eerdmans, 1982, S. 70

[13]Davids, Peter H.: The Epistle of James : A Commentary on the Greek Text. Grand Rapids, Mich. : Eerdmans, 1982, S. 72

* See further Brandt, 189–201; Daniélou, 362–365.

[14]Davids, Peter H.: The Epistle of James : A Commentary on the Greek Text. Grand Rapids, Mich. : Eerdmans, 1982, S. 73

[15]Davids, Peter H.: The Epistle of James : A Commentary on the Greek Text. Grand Rapids, Mich. : Eerdmans, 1982, S. 73

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